D Question 1 Opts Which Of The Following Statements Are Not True About Protein And The
D Question 1 Opts Which of the following statements are NOT True about protein and the diet? Most adults require 0.8 grams of protein per kg Extra protein is necessary to build muscle Protein contains the nitrogen element Protein yields 4 kcal/g of energy A meal of beans and corn tortillas provides complete protein An essential amino acid can not be synthesized by the body Plant proteins are high quality protein Amino acids are the building blocks for protein Animal
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Question 9 10 Pts Multiple Choice: Which Of The Following Is Not True Concerning Fats And
Question 9 10 pts Multiple Choice: Which of the following is NOT true concerning fats and lipids? Some fat is necessary in our diet Polyunsaturated fatty acids cause the greatest increase in LDL levels To lower blood cholesterol levels choose foods made with unsaturated fats O A relationship has been found between a diet high in fat and cardiovascular disease D Question 10 10 pts 5. Ancample is galactose Choose Question 6 10 pts Multiple Choice: Which of the following
How Can I Reduce My Risk Of Hyperlipidemia
Even children can get their blood checked for high cholesterol, especially if someone in the childs family had a heart attack, stroke or high cholesterol. Children and young adults can get checked every five years.
Once you reach middle age, you should have your cholesterol checked every year or two. Your healthcare provider can help you decide how often you should have a hyperlipidemia screening.
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What Causes High Cholesterol
The most common cause of high cholesterol is an unhealthy lifestyle. This can include:
- Unhealthy eating habits, such as eating lots of bad fats. One type, saturated fat, is found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods. Another type, trans fat, is in some fried and processed foods. Eating these fats can raise your LDL cholesterol.
- Lack of physical activity, with lots of sitting and little exercise. This lowers your HDL cholesterol.
- Smoking, which lowers HDL cholesterol, especially in women. It also raises your LDL cholesterol.
Genetics may also cause people to have high cholesterol. For example, familial hypercholesterolemia is an inherited form of high cholesterol. Other medical conditions and certain medicines may also cause high cholesterol.
Why Dietary Cholesterol Does Not Matter
High blood cholesterol levels are a known risk factor for heart disease.
For decades, people have been told that the dietary cholesterol in foods raises blood cholesterol levels and causes heart disease.
This idea may have been a rational conclusion based on the available science 50 years ago, but better, more recent evidence doesnt support it.
This article takes a close look at the current research on dietary cholesterol and the role it plays in blood cholesterol levels and heart disease.
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What Is The Difference Between Laboratory And Point
Traditionally, cholesterol tests have been done in laboratories where clear procedures are in place for proper sample collection and analysis. These mechanisms help make sure that rest results are reliable.
New technologies have made point-of-care and at-home tests more widely available. When their instructions are correctly followed, these tests have nearly the same accuracy as laboratory tests.
For at-home and point-of-care tests, blood is taken from your fingertip instead of from a vein in your arm. Because results do not need to be sent to a laboratory, results are provided within minutes instead of days.
Laboratory testing is considered to be standard and is what doctors rely on to make medical decisions. That said, at-home and point-of-care tests are convenient and may help with ongoing monitoring of cholesterol.
Safe Blood Cholesterol Levels
Health authorities recommend that cholesterol levels should be no higher than 5.5 mmol per litre if there are no other risk factors present. If there are other cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and high blood pressure or pre-existing cardiovascular disease, then the aim for the LDL levels would be less than 2 mmol/l. Approximately half of all adult Australians have a blood cholesterol level above 5 mmol/l. This makes high blood cholesterol a major health concern in Australia.
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You Dont Need To Avoid Eggs And Seafood
Some foods are high in cholesterol but are fine to eat in moderation, as long as your overall diet is low in saturated fats. For example:
- Egg yolks a single egg yolk contains 200250 mg of cholesterol, which is almost the uppermost recommended daily intake . However, reducing egg intake is probably not important for healthy people with normal blood cholesterol levels.
- Seafood prawns and seafood contain some cholesterol, but they are low in saturated fat and also contain healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Seafood is a healthy food and should not be avoided just because it contains cholesterol. However, avoid fried and battered seafood.
Medication May Be Needed
For some people, diet and lifestyle changes are not enough. High blood cholesterol levels often have a genetic component. Some people inherit altered genes that cause high cholesterol and this cannot usually be changed sufficiently by lifestyle or diet.
If you are at risk of coronary heart disease and your LDL cholesterol level doesnt drop after scrupulous attention to diet, your doctor may recommend medications to force your blood LDL levels down. Cell cholesterol levels, however, remain normal, so lowering blood cholesterol has no effect on most cell metabolic processes.
Some people get muscle aches from statins, which are the most commonly used medication to lower blood cholesterol. However, diet and exercise will still be important, even if you are taking medication. Your doctor may also refer you to a specialist who treats cardiovascular disease.
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Stages Of Synthesis Of Cholesterol
stage 1: synthesis of Mevalonate from acetyl-CoA through HMG-CoA.
This stage occur in the cytosol of cell and has similar reaction as for the synthesis of ketone bodies.
Stage 2: Decarboxylation of mevalonate to form Isopentenyl pyrophosphate
This reaction also occur in the cytoplasm. Mevalonate is firstly phosphorylated by ATP and then decarboxylated to form 5 carbon isoprene unit known as isopentenyl pyrophosphate
Stage 3: condensation of isoprenoid units to form squalene
This stage occurs in endoplasmic reticulum. Six IPP molecules condense and loose their pyrophosphate groups and form hydrocarbon squalene .
Stage 4: Cyclization of squalene to form Lanosterol
This stage occurs in endoplasmic reticulum. squalene undergoes a series of complex enzymatic reactions, in which it changes it structure from linear and becomes cyclic to form lanosterol. Lanosterol has 4 condensed ring that form steroid nucleus of cholesterol.
Stage 5: formation of cholesterol from lanosterol
When Should You Contact Your Healthcare Provider About Your Cholesterol Levels
In truth, your healthcare provider will probably talk to you about your numbers first. As always, contact your provider if you have any new or worsening pain or other uncomfortable feelings. Make sure you know what medications you take and what they are expected to do. Call the provider if you have a reaction to the medicine.
Before you go to the office, and after you have had a cholesterol test, it helps to have a list of questions prepared about your test results and any proposed treatment.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
When considering cholesterol numbers, its important to remember that you really have the ability to make those numbers go in your favor. What you choose to eat, how much you are able to move and how you deal with lifes ups and downs are things that you can influence.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 07/31/2020.
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What Health Problems Can High Cholesterol Cause
If you have large deposits of plaque in your arteries, an area of plaque can rupture . This can cause a blood clot to form on the surface of the plaque. If the clot becomes large enough, it can mostly or completely block blood flow in a coronary artery.
Plaque also can build up in other arteries in your body, including the arteries that bring oxygen-rich blood to your brain and limbs. This can lead to problems such as carotid artery disease, stroke, and peripheral arterial disease.
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I Am A Healthy Weight So I Cant Have High Cholesterol
Oh, yes you can! according to Dr. Greenfield. Cholesterol balance is really a function of what we eat but also our genetics. For example, a person can be born with a genetic tendency to not process cholesterol efficiently.
Because its genetic, he explained, it has been called familial hypercholesterolemia, and it might be as common as 1 in 200 people. Weight is more a function of your inherited metabolism and the balance between calories consumed and calories expended.
Dr. Paz concurred: Even if you have a healthy weight, your cholesterol can be abnormal. Other factors that impact your cholesterol are the foods you eat, your exercise habits, whether you smoke, and how much alcohol you drink.
Additionally, as Dr. Lajoie told us, people who have a healthy weight might have high cholesterol levels, while some people who have overweight may not have high cholesterol. Cholesterol levels are affected by genetics, thyroid function, medications, exercise, sleep, and diet, she explained.
There are also factors that you cannot modify and which can contribute to high cholesterol, like your age and your genetics, she continued.
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Table 3110percentiles For Plasma Total High
- Increases in dietary cholesterol and fat raise levels of apoprotein E-containing lipoproteins in the plasma of man.Cole TG, Patsch W, Kuisk I, Gonen B, Schonfeld G. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 1983 Jun 56:1108-15.
- Heterogeneous properties of intermediate- and low-density lipoprotein subpopulations.Srisawasdi P, Vanavanan S, Rochanawutanon M, Pornsuriyasak P, Tantrakul V, Kruthkul K, Kotani K. Clin Biochem. 2013 Oct 46:1509-15. Epub 2013 Jul 2.
- Review .Sandhofer F. Wien Med Wochenschr. 1994 144:286-90.
- .Bauchart D, Levieux D. Reprod Nutr Dev. 1985 25:243-50.
- Review .
Cholesterol can be confusing! Learn answers to common questions about blood cholesterol.
What do your cholesterol numbers mean? Can the foods you eat change your cholesterol levels?
Learn the difference between cholesterol myth and fact. Then commit to getting your cholesterol checked this year so you know your numbers and your risk for heart disease and stroke.
Commit to getting your cholesterol checked this year so you know your numbers and your risk for heart disease and stroke.
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How Can I Lower My Cholesterol
If the lifestyle changes alone do not lower your cholesterol enough, you may also need to take medicines. There are several types of cholesterol-lowering drugs available, including statins. If you take medicines to lower your cholesterol, you still should continue with the lifestyle changes.
Some people with familial hypercholesterolemia may receive a treatment called lipoprotein apheresis. This treatment uses a filtering machine to remove LDL cholesterol from the blood. Then the machine returns the rest of the blood back to the person.
NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
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How Fat And Cholesterol In Food Affect Blood Cholesterol Levels
The types of fat in the diet help determine the amount of total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol in the bloodstream. The types and amount of carbohydrate in the diet also play a role. Cholesterol in food matters, too, but not nearly as much.
- The discovery half a century ago that high blood cholesterol levels were strongly associated with an increased risk for heart disease triggered numerous warnings to avoid foods that contain cholesterol, especially eggs and liver. However, scientific studies show a weak relationship between the amount of cholesterol a person consumes and his or her blood cholesterol levels
- In studies of more than 80,000 female nurses, Harvard researchers found that consuming about an egg a day was not associated with higher risk of heart disease. However, people who have heart disease or diabetes should monitor egg consumption.
For most people, the amount of cholesterol eaten has only a modest impact on the amount of cholesterol circulating in the blood. For some people, though, blood cholesterol levels rise and fall very strongly in relation to the amount of cholesterol eaten. For these responders, avoiding cholesterol-rich foods can have a substantial effect on blood cholesterol levels. Unfortunately, at this point there is no way other than by trial and error to identify responders from non-responders to dietary cholesterol.
Which Of The Following Are Symptoms Of High Cholesterol
a) Being overweight b) fatigue c) diabetes or d) there are no symptoms
Being overweight raises the likelihood that you have high cholesterol, but its not a symptom. The correct answer is D. There are no symptoms. The only way to detect high cholesterol is with a blood test. Know of a good place to get one of those?
So, thats it! How did you do? Let us know in the comments or on our Facebook & Twitter pages. Until next time.
*Sources: Mayo Clinic, CDC, WebMD, American Heart Association, HealthyWomen.org
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How Is It Broken Down
Once in the blood stream, some cholesterol will be returned to the liver and broken down. Its used to make bile acids which are released into the intestines to help with digestion bile acids break down the fats in food.
A small amount of bile acids will be removed from the body as a waste product in your poo. But most will be absorbed back into the blood, returned to the liver and used again for digestion.
Some treatments for high cholesterol work by stopping bile from being absorbed back into the blood. The liver has to take more cholesterol out of the blood to make more bile, lowering your cholesterol levels.
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Dietary Tips To Avoid Cholesterol
The most important thing you can do to reduce your cholesterol level is to maintain a healthy lifestyle. You should try to:
- Increase the amount and variety of fresh fruit, vegetables and wholegrain foods you have each day.
- Choose low or reduced-fat milk, yoghurt and other dairy products or have added calcium soy drinks.
- Choose lean meat .
- Limit fatty meats, including sausages and salami, and choose leaner sandwich meats like turkey breast or cooked lean chicken.
- Have fish at least twice a week.
- Replace butter and dairy blends with polyunsaturated margarines.
- Include foods in your diet that are rich in soluble fibre and healthy fats, such as nuts, legumes and seeds.
- Limit cheese and ice cream to twice a week.
Other storage fats that are transported in blood lipoproteins include triglycerides. When present in high concentrations in the blood, this fat is also a risk for heart attack. Some foods will affect the cholesterol level or the triglyceride level and some will affect both.
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How Does Dietary Cholesterol Affect Blood Cholesterol
The amount of cholesterol in your diet and the amount of cholesterol in your blood are very different things.
Although it may seem logical that eating cholesterol would raise blood cholesterol levels, it usually doesnt work that way.
The body tightly regulates the amount of cholesterol in the blood by controlling its production of cholesterol.
When your dietary intake of cholesterol goes down, your body makes more. When you eat greater amounts of cholesterol, your body makes less. Because of this, foods high in dietary cholesterol have very little impact on blood cholesterol levels in most people (
This is because the general increase in LDL particles typically reflects an increase in large LDL particles not small, dense LDL. In fact, people who have mainly large LDL particles have a lower risk of heart disease .
Hyperresponders also experience an increase in HDL particles, which offsets the increase in LDL by transporting excess cholesterol back to the liver for elimination from the body .
As such, while hyperresponders experience raised cholesterol levels when they increase their dietary cholesterol, the ratio of LDL to HDL cholesterol in these individuals stays the same and their risk of heart disease doesnt seem to go up.
Of course, there are always exceptions in nutrition, and some individuals may see adverse effects from eating more cholesterol-rich foods.
Contrary to popular belief, heart disease is not only caused by cholesterol.
Cholesterol: 5 Truths To Know
About 71 million Americans have high cholesterol. A large part of preventing and treating the condition is understanding it. Here are five important cholesterol facts to know for better health.
Cholesterol is a natural component in everyones blood, and supports functions within the body. Its only when bad cholesterol causes plaque to build up in your arteries that its considered a major risk factor for heart attack, heart disease and stroke.
In fact, there are actually several different types of cholesterol. The most important one to focus attention on is low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which has been known as bad cholesterol. High levels of this substance in the blood can call for medication or lifestyle changes to bring them down.
Visit the Calculating Your Cholesterol article for more information.