Hdls For Drug Delivery
For over 10 years, rHDLs have been used in research for treatment delivery . The delivery to organs of interest is efficient and the cargo is protected from degradation. While conjugations of HDLs have mostly been used to target the liver, where SR-B1 expression is high, it has been found that the addition of folic acid to HDLs expands the target organ pool to cells expressing the folate receptor . The current understanding of how to encapsulate vaso-protective compounds within rHDL allows us to consider using it a treatment . The infusion of rHDL loaded with a potent LXR agonist enabled atherosclerotic plaque regression in the apoE-knock out mouse model, with significant accumulation of the synthetic HDL found in the atherosclerotic lesions . Similarly, rHDL encapsulating statins are more effective at reducing atherosclerosis-induced inflammation than statin or rHDL alone in mice . Moreover, rHDLs have been used for contrast imaging in MRI . Predictions around the future developments in rHDL-based therapies evolve around developing rHDL particles that act simultaneously as drug delivery and imaging systems, termed theranostics included in Table 1.
What Is Good Cholesterol And How Do I Boost It
Your liver produces enough cholesterol for the body to function effectively, but certain foodsprimarily animal products, like eggs, dairy, and meatalso contain cholesterol.
There are two types of lipoprotein that carry cholesterol to and from cells: high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein .
HDL is considered the good cholesterol because a healthy level may protect you from cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, LDL is considered the bad cholesterol because it contributes to fatty buildup in your arteries.
Are Home Cholesterol Testing Kits Accurate
The answer is yes if the tests are labeled CDC-certified. This means that the contents have been approved by the Cholesterol Reference Method Laboratory Network, a group that works with test makers, laboratories and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention to make sure tests are accurate.
For home tests, you will still need to fast for 12 hours and to obtain blood for testing. Some kits come with packages for mailing to a lab for results. Other kits have a monitor so you can get the results at home. The cost of such home kits varies.
How Do I Know What My Hdl Level Is
A blood test can measure your cholesterol levels, including HDL. When and how often you should get this test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:
For people who are age 19 or younger::
- The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
- Children should have the test again every 5 years
- Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke
For people who are age 20 or older::
- Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
- Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
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You Dont Need To Avoid Eggs And Seafood
Some foods are high in cholesterol but are fine to eat in moderation, as long as your overall diet is low in saturated fats. For example:
- Egg yolks a single egg yolk contains 200250 mg of cholesterol, which is almost the uppermost recommended daily intake . However, reducing egg intake is probably not important for healthy people with normal blood cholesterol levels.
- Seafood prawns and seafood contain some cholesterol, but they are low in saturated fat and also contain healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Seafood is a healthy food and should not be avoided just because it contains cholesterol. However, avoid fried and battered seafood.
Plasma Transport And Regulation Of Absorption
As an isolated molecule, cholesterol is only minimally soluble in water, or hydrophilic. Because of this, it dissolves in blood at exceedingly small concentrations. To be transported effectively, cholesterol is instead packaged within lipoproteins, complex discoidal particles with exterior amphiphilic proteins and lipids, whose outward-facing surfaces are water-soluble and inward-facing surfaces are lipid-soluble. This allows it to travel through the blood via emulsification. Unbound cholesterol, being amphipathic, is transported in the monolayer surface of the lipoprotein particle along with phospholipids and proteins. Cholesterol esters bound to fatty acid, on the other hand, are transported within the fatty hydrophilic core of the lipoprotein, along with triglyceride.
There are several types of lipoproteins in the blood. In order of increasing density, they are chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoprotein , intermediate-density lipoprotein , low-density lipoprotein , and high-density lipoprotein . Lower protein/lipid ratios make for less dense lipoproteins. Cholesterol within different lipoproteins is identical, although some is carried as its native “free” alcohol form , while others as fatty acyl esters, known also as cholesterol esters, within the particles.
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Can Lecithin Cause Low Blood Pressure
Lecithin can lower blood pressure. The content of linoleic acid in sunflower Lecithin assists in breaking accumulated excess fats in the body like cholesterol and triglycerides. When there is a high level of triglycerides and cholesterol in the body, they invade the arterial walls and cause arteriosclerosis. Individuals with arteriosclerosis can have high blood pressure since their arteries are thickened. They also have increased chances of health attack or stroke. Daily intake of recommended Lecithin will assist in gradually unclogging the arteries and reduce blood pressure.
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Insulin Resistance And Atherosclerosis
Lipolysis in fat cells is normally effectively suppressed by insulin in the fed state. In insulin-resistant individuals, lipolysis persists despite post-prandial increases in circulating insulin concentrations, leading to an increased release of free fatty acids. A proportion of these free fatty acids is transported to the liver, where they promote an increased synthesis of triglycerides, an increased production of the triglyceride-rich VLDLs, and an increase in the secretion of these particles into the plasma. The increased pool of VLDLs provides a larger pool of acceptors of the cholesterol transferred from both HDLs and LDLs into VLDLs. This transfer is accompanied by a reciprocal transfer of triglyceride into LDLs and HDLs, which therefore become enriched in triglyceride. Hydrolysis of the triglyceride in LDLs and HDLs by hepatic lipase reduces their particle size and generates small, dense LDLs and small, dense HDLs. Small, dense LDLs are especially prone to oxidation and thus more likely to be taken up by macrophages in the artery wall, leading to further progression of the atherosclerotic plaque.
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Cholesterol Forms Part Of The Cell Membrane Building Blocks
Cholesterol makes up part of each and every cell in the body. Cholesterol and phospholipids are two major lipids that make up cell membranes. Cell membranes make up the outer layer of cells, and act as gatekeepers.
All cell membranes are in part made from cholesterol, in fact some cell membranes comprise of 50% cholesterol according to The Cell: A Molecular Approach.
Cell membranes have a double layer of lipids called phospholipids. Phospholipids are lipids that have a phosphate molecule attached to them.
Cholesterol is essential in cell membranes for 3 main reasons:
Cholesterol supports cell membranes, cholesterol is insoluble in water and is more rigid than surrounding molecules so it ensures that the cell membrane is structurally supported.
Cholesterol keeps cell membranes fluid. Cholesterol has different effects on the fluidity of cell membranes depending on temperature. It ensures the cell membranes does not become too rigid or too fluid despite changing temperature
Cholesterol is necessary in the construction of special parts of the cell called lipid rafts. Lipid rafts are thought to be involved in the transportation of specific proteins that help prevent the infiltration of certain pathogens such as viruses and bacteria.
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LECITHIN IS a fatty substance found throughout our bodies and in some foods. It is made up primarily of phospholipids, compounds found in all living organisms. These are the major component of cell membranes which allow cells to remain separated from one another. Lecithin is therefore crucial to the normal functioning of all living organisms.
Our livers normally make sufficient lecithin on a daily basis. Commercially, lecithin can be extracted from egg yolks or soy beans. The name lecithin comes from the Greek word for egg yoke. It is widely used in foods as a natural emulsifier to prevent the separation of fatty components from water-soluble components.
However, there is a growing interest in using lecithin as a dietary supplement, which led one of our readers to ask about its value.
Evidence from studies
Lecithin is crucial for the health of membranes and also plays a role as an antioxidant. This has led to claims that it helps both to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease and to prevent dementia and Alzheimers disease.
The claims about cardiovascular disease relate to laboratory studies that show that lecithin has antioxidant properties, and thus can be generally beneficial for health. In addition, some studies showed that animals fed diets rich in lecithin had reduced blood cholesterol levels.
Very few studies have been conducted in humans, and the benefits have not been clear-cut.
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What Factors Affect Cholesterol Levels
A variety of factors can affect your cholesterol levels. They include:
- Diet: Saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol in the food you eat increase cholesterol levels. Try to reduce the amount of saturated fat, trans fat and cholesterol in your diet. This will help lower your blood cholesterol level. Saturated and trans fat have the most impact on blood cholesterol.
- Weight: In addition to being a risk factor for heart disease, being overweight can also increase your triglycerides. Losing weight may help lower your triglyceride levels and raise your HDL.
- Exercise: Regular exercise can lower total cholesterol levels. Exercise has the most effect on lowering triglycerides and raising HDL. You should try to be physically active for 30 minutes on most days of the week.
- Age and sex: As we get older, cholesterol levels rise. Before menopause, women tend to have lower total cholesterol levels than men of the same age. After menopause, however, womens LDL levels tend to rise and HDL can drop.
- Heredity: Your genes partly determine how much cholesterol your body makes. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
What Is Cholesterol And What Is A Healthy Level
Cholesterol is a waxy, fat-like substance that occurs naturally in the body. It plays a vital role in how every cell works and every single cell needs and contains cholesterol. The body also turns it into vitamin D and a variety of hormones and it is also the raw material for bile acids which the body produces to aid digestion of fats .
However, the type and level of cholesterol in the body is important for health and too high a cholesterol level increases the risk of heart disease. Although genetic factors play an important role in determining a personâs cholesterol level it is also influenced strongly by diet and while cholesterol level is regarded as a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, it is regarded as a âmodifiableâ risk factor. It can be modified by diet and the type and quantity of foods we eat can make a big difference and this provides an opportunity to develop specific foods which can help lower cholesterol levels.
Cholesterol can enter the body in the foods we eat or can be produced in the body by the liver . Dietary cholesterol accounts for around 25â40% of the daily turnover of cholesterol whereas production in the body accounts for 60â75% .
The liver is the âcontrol centreâ for the bodyâs cholesterol transport system. Cholesterol is transported around the body in the form of lipoproteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins involved in cholesterol transport and these are called LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol .
Why Is Cholesterol Important To The Human Body
Cholesterol. In its pure state it is a white, crystalline substance that is odourless and tasteless. Cholesterol is essential to life it is a primary component of the membrane that surrounds each cell, and it is the starting material or an intermediate compound from which the body synthesizes bile acids, steroid hormones, and vitamin D.
Food Containing Good And Bad Cholesterol
The foods rich in good cholesterol include onions and Omega-3 fatty acids like flax oil, canola oil, fish, foods rich in fibre like grains, oats, bran and soy. To decrease your LDL, avoid high-cholesterol foods that are rich in trans fatty acids, refined carbohydrates such as white sugar and flour, cholesterol-rich foods such as egg yolk, liver, kidney dairy products like cream cheese, and alcohol.
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Why Is Cholesterol Important
Cholesterol is an amphipathic lipid. It is found in lipids, in the bloodstream and our body cells. It is used to form cell membranes and the human skin barrier. In addition, it plays an essential role in digestion, producing hormones.
Cholesterol plays an essential role in digestion, building cells and cell membranes, synthesizing hormone and is valuable for synthesising vitamin D. Cholesterol is also helps in the production of bile acids, which play a vital role in the human digestive system.
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What Is A Good Cholesterol Ratio
Cholesterol is not a bad thing in itself. It is, in fact, essential for proper cell function, being a key component of cell membranes. Cholesterol is carried in the blood but cannot be dissolved in it, which means that it must use “vehicles” called lipoproteins for moving about the body. In figuring cholesterol rates, lipoproteins and the cholesterol they contain are essentially interchangeable.
The liver is the engine that churns out the body’s cholesterol, producing it in the form of bile. As with many things in the body, however, too much of this good thing can be detrimental. Processing a modern fat-rich diet can create a higher than normal level of cholesterol. Since blood cannot dissolve or wash the cholesterol away, the excess begins accumulating on artery walls and restricting blood flow. This is especially dangerous inside the heart.
The cholesterol ratio was developed as a means of quantifying the overall status of that substance in the body. One commonly employed cholesterol ratio divides the rate of HDL into the figure for LDL. Another divides the overall cholesterol rating, arrived at through adding the HDL and LDL levels together, by the amount of HDL.
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How Does Cholesterol Work
To do this, the liver produces lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are particles made from fat and protein. They package cholesterol and triglycerides, another type of lipid, and transport them through your bloodstream. The two major forms of lipoprotein are low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein .
LDLs are lipoproteins that have given up the majority of their triglycerides to cells after being transported and are now mainly made up of cholesterol. They then transport this remaining cholesterol from the liver to the rest of the body. These are usually termed as bad cholesterol because they can lead to the accumulation of cholesterol and contribute to blockages in the lymphatic system.
HDLs are very different to LDLs. They are considered to be good cholesterol since they are empty vessels that travel around the body, searching for excess levels of cholesterol in tissues that are not of primary concern. HDLs will collect this excess and transport it back to the liver for recycling.
For example, one of the main functions of cholesterol is to help with digestion. In this scenario, the lipoproteins will be transported to the liver to make bile acids. This bile will be used to break down fats that we consume from food. Once the food has been digested, some of the bile will be excreted from the body, while the rest of it travels back to the liver to be used again in the same way.
How Is Bad Cholesterol Treated
Your lifestyle is a good start. For example, you can lower your salt intake and work more healthy fats into your diet, like avocados, fish, and nuts. If youre carrying excess weight, losing weight through exercise can control your cholesterol and improve blood flow. Your habits also affect your cholesterol, so you should drink alcohol in moderation and quit all forms of tobacco.
Depending on your condition, Dr. Veiseh may recommend medication to reduce bad cholesterol or raise your good cholesterol, including statins, niacin, and fibrates. These medications are most effective when you combine them with lifestyle changes.
To arrange a cholesterol blood test or get help on managing your cholesterol, make an appointment with Dr. Veiseh online or over the phone.
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