Ldl Vs Hdl Good Vs Bad
If cholesterol is essential for overall health, why would one type be bad?
In simple terms, if there is too much LDL cholesterol running through your blood vessels, it can, over time, start to build up on the sides of those blood vessels. This buildup is typically referred to as plaque.
Plaque buildup in your blood vessels can eventually cause those vessels to become narrower. The more narrow your blood vessels are, the harder it is for blood to reach your heart and other organs.
When blood flow becomes very blocked, it can cause chest pain and even a heart attack.
HDL cholesterol, on the other hand, returns cholesterol to the liver so it can be flushed from the body.
Understanding The Highs And Lows Of Cholesterol
You know that too much is dangerous. But what is cholesterol, anyway? Where does it come from? And is it all bad?
Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is found in every cell in the body. Its either made by the body or absorbed from food. Your body needs cholesterol to make important steroid hormones such as estrogen, progesterone and vitamin D. Its also used to make bile acids in the liver these absorb fat during digestion.
So some cholesterol is necessary but bad cholesterol is something you can do without. Excess bad cholesterol in the bloodstream can deposit into the bodys arteries. These deposits are called plaques and result in atherosclerosis, or hardening of the arteries. This is the major cause of heart attacks, strokes and other vascular problems.
Your total cholesterol level is a measure of the total amount of cholesterol circulating in your bloodstream, which includes several components:
- LDL cholesterol: LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein. This is known as the bad cholesterol, which directly contributes to plaque buildup in the arteries. Very low density lipoprotein, or VLDL cholesterol, is another type, which is a precursor to LDL.
- Total cholesterol is VLDL cholesterol plus LDL cholesterol plus HDL cholesterol.
- HDL cholesterol: HDL stands for high-density lipoprotein. Experts think at optimal levels it might help the body get rid of LDL cholesterol.
And guess what? This buildup can start as early as your 20s.
Ldl As A Risk Factor For Heart Disease
LDL carries about 60-70% of serum cholesterol . It transports cholesterol from the liver to the peripheral tissues. High levels of LDL-C are harmful because it can build up on the arterial walls to initiate the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Unlike the other lipoproteins, each LDL particle contains mostly one apoB-100 which is responsible for the selective binding of LDL to the LDLR. The binding of LDL to its receptor in the liver is the major mechanism used to remove LDL from circulation. Using this mechanism, about 70% of LDL are removed by the liver, releasing FC . The increase in intracellular cholesterol can affect blood cholesterol levels by inhibiting de novo synthesis of cholesterol, decreasing the synthesis of the LDLR, and increasing the activity of an enzyme that facilitates cholesterol storage .
Also Check: Does Shrimp Have High Cholesterol
Cholesterol: The Good The Bad And The Lipoprotein
Simbo M. Chiadika, MD
Our bodies make and use cholesterol to aid in digestion, and to produce vitamin D and hormones. Cholesterol is a waxy substance that is found in many of the foods we eat, such as egg yolks, fatty meats, dairy products, and saturated oils. Too much cholesterol can cause plaque to build up on the walls of your arteries which can narrow blood flow. This may eventually lead to coronary artery disease or other health complications. Simbo Chiadika, MD, a cardiologist with UT Physicians, explains why.
What Can Raise My Risk Of High Cholesterol
A variety of things can raise your risk for high cholesterol:
- Age. Your cholesterol levels tend to rise as you get older. Even though it is less common, younger people, including children and teens, can also have high cholesterol.
- Heredity. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
- Weight. Being overweight or having obesity raises your cholesterol level.
- Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
Also Check: Is Shrimp Bad For Your Cholesterol
Safe Blood Cholesterol Levels
Health authorities recommend that cholesterol levels should be no higher than 5.5 mmol per litre if there are no other risk factors present. If there are other cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking and high blood pressure or pre-existing cardiovascular disease, then the aim for the LDL levels would be less than 2 mmol/l. Approximately half of all adult Australians have a blood cholesterol level above 5 mmol/l. This makes high blood cholesterol a major health concern in Australia.
Hdl Is A Primary Participant In Rct
The importance of RCT for the removal of cholesterol from peripheral tissue for excretion through the liver is well known . A critical step in RCT, a multistep process, is maturation of the pre-1-HDL formed through the acquisition of free cholesterol and phospholipids by apolipoprotein AI into -migrating HDL. The FC is converted into cholesteryl ester by lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase and migrates into the interior of the HDL particle, thus enabling the transfer of more FC to the cell surface. Plasma pre-1-HDL levels have been reported to be increased in patients with coronary artery disease and dyslipidemia. Elevation of the plasma pre-1-HDL level is associated with the atherosclerotic phase of coronary artery disease and may be useful for the identification of patients with unstable angina pectoris. High pre-1-HDL concentrations and low LCAT activities are strong positive risk markers for ischemic heart disease and are independent of HDL-C.
Read Also: Is Canned Tuna High In Cholesterol
Plant Sterols Can Lower Cholesterol Levels
Plant sterols are found naturally in plant foods including sunflower and canola seeds, vegetable oils and in nuts, legumes, cereals, fruit and vegetables. Some margarine and milks have concentrated plant sterols added to them. Margarines enriched with plant sterolslower LDL cholesterol in most people if the correct amount is eaten .
What Are The Types Of Cholesterol And What Do They Mean For Your Health
This substance can be harmfulor helpfulto your arteries. The trick is to boost the good kind and slash the bad.
Cholesterol performs more than one vital job: The fatlike substance is a building block for the intestinal acids that digest your food, it helps keep cell walls healthy, and it allows your body to produce all-important vitamin D. Like most things in life, however, too much can be problematic.
One myth that patients often bring up is: I heard cholesterol doesnt really matter anymore, that heart risk is more about inflammation, says Suzanne Steinbaum, DO, a cardiologist at the Mount Sinai Hospital and volunteer medical expert with the American Heart Associations Go Red for Women campaign. While inflammation is important, cholesterol absolutely still matters, she says. One large study published in the journal Circulation in 2015, for example, found that for every decade that someone was living with high bad cholesterol, their chances of having a heart attack or stroke increased by 40 percent above their normal risk level.
But heres the most important message doctors want to get out: We have so much more control over cholesterol than people think, says Dr. Steinbaummeaning simple, everyday choices can make a real impact on your cardiovascular health.
You May Like: Can I Eat Potatoes If I Have High Cholesterol
Add These Foods To Lower Ldl Cholesterol
Different foods lower cholesterol in various ways. Some deliver soluble fiber, which binds cholesterol and its precursors in the digestive system and drags them out of the body before they get into circulation. Some give you polyunsaturated fats, which directly lower LDL. And some contain plant sterols and stanols, which block the body from absorbing cholesterol.
1. Oats. An easy first step to lowering your cholesterol is having a bowl of oatmeal or cold oat-based cereal like Cheerios for breakfast. It gives you 1 to 2 grams of soluble fiber. Add a banana or some strawberries for another half-gram. Current nutrition guidelines recommend getting 20 to 35 grams of fiber a day, with at least 5 to 10 grams coming from soluble fiber.
2. Barley and other whole grains. Like oats and oat bran, barley and other whole grains can help lower the risk of heart disease, mainly via the soluble fiber they deliver.
3. Beans. Beans are especially rich in soluble fiber. They also take a while for the body to digest, meaning you feel full for longer after a meal. That’s one reason beans are a useful food for folks trying to lose weight. With so many choices from navy and kidney beans to lentils, garbanzos, black-eyed peas, and beyond and so many ways to prepare them, beans are a very versatile food.
4. Eggplant and okra. These two low-calorie vegetables are good sources of soluble fiber.
What Are The Signs And Symptoms Of High Cholesterol
High cholesterol generally doesnt have obvious symptoms, but it can increase the risk of serious health conditions if left untreated. Thats why its important to get a blood test and regular check-ups. If you are 45 or older , see your doctor for a cholesterol test as part of a Heart Health Check. If you have a family history of high cholesterol, speak to your GP about your heart disease risk.
Recommended Reading: Atherosclerosis And Plaque Is Made Up Of Cholesterol Weegy
What Is A Good Cholesterol Level
A good cholesterol level is different for people of different ages and sexes. For example, for anyone younger than 20 years old, total cholesterol should be less than 170 mg/dL, non-HDL cholesterol should be less than 120 mg/dL, LDL cholesterol should be less than 100 mg/dL, and HDL cholesterol should be more than 45 mg/dL.
How Is High Cholesterol Diagnosed
There are usually no signs or symptoms that you have high cholesterol. There is a blood test to measure your cholesterol level. When and how often you should get this test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:
For people who are age 19 or younger:
- The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
- Children should have the test again every 5 years
- Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke
For people who are age 20 or older:
- Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
- Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
Don’t Miss: How Much Cholesterol In Pork Chops
You Dont Need To Avoid Eggs And Seafood
Some foods are high in cholesterol but are fine to eat in moderation, as long as your overall diet is low in saturated fats. For example:
- Egg yolks a single egg yolk contains 200250 mg of cholesterol, which is almost the uppermost recommended daily intake . However, reducing egg intake is probably not important for healthy people with normal blood cholesterol levels.
- Seafood prawns and seafood contain some cholesterol, but they are low in saturated fat and also contain healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Seafood is a healthy food and should not be avoided just because it contains cholesterol. However, avoid fried and battered seafood.
How To Lower Your Cholesterol
Your doctor can measure your cholesterol levels using a blood test. A high cholesterol level means you might be at risk of heart disease and stroke. You wont necessarily have any symptoms of having high cholesterol, so you doctor might test it regularly to keep an eye on your levels.
A cholesterol test looks at the amount of both HDL and LDL cholesterol in your body. It will also show your triglyceride level, which is a type of fat in your bloodstream, as high triglyceride levels can also indicate a higher risk of heart disease.
If youve had a test showing you have high cholesterol levels, lifestyle changes might help you to lower your levels. Reduce your cholesterol by:
Recommended Reading: Is Mayo Bad For Cholesterol
How Can I Raise My Hdl Level
If your HDL level is too low, lifestyle changes may help. These changes may also help prevent other diseases, and make you feel better overall:
- Eat a healthy diet. To raise your HDL level, you need to eat good fats instead of bad fats. This means limiting saturated fats, which include full-fat milk and cheese, high-fat meats like sausage and bacon, and foods made with butter, lard, and shortening. You should also avoid trans fats, which may be in some margarines, fried foods, and processed foods like baked goods. Instead, eat unsaturated fats, which are found in avocado, vegetable oils like olive oil, and nuts. Limit carbohydrates, especially sugar. Also try to eat more foods naturally high in fiber, such as oatmeal and beans.
- Stay at a healthy weight. You can boost your HDL level by losing weight, especially if you have lots of fat around your waist.
- Exercise. Getting regular exercise can raise your HDL level, as well as lower your LDL. You should try to do 30 minutes of moderate to vigorous aerobic exercise on most, if not all, days.
- Avoid cigarettes.Smoking and exposure to secondhand smoke can lower your HDL level. If you are a smoker, ask your health care provider for help in finding the best way for you to quit. You should also try to avoid secondhand smoke.
- Limit alcohol. Moderate alcohol may lower your HDL level, although more studies are needed to confirm that. What we do know is that too much alcohol can make you gain weight, and that lowers your HDL level.
Is Canned Tuna Fish High In Cholesterol
. Also question is, does canned tuna help reduce cholesterol?
Fish: Although fish will not help to lower cholesterol, it has lots of benefits for your heart. Omega-3 fats, which are found in oil-rich fish such as salmon, trout, mackerel, herring and sardines, are very beneficial for your heart. Tuna is the one exception fresh tuna has omega-3s but tinned tuna generally doesnt.
Beside above, is canned tuna fish good for your heart? Tuna, for its part, is a source of high-quality protein with almost no fat. It contains all essential amino acids required by the body for growth and maintenance of lean muscle tissue. Canned tuna can be a good source of hearthealthy omega-3 fatty acids, with 150 milligrams or more per four-ounce serving.
Also question is, is canned tuna high in cholesterol?
Canned tuna is a good source of essential nutrients, such as omega-3 fatty acids, high quality protein, selenium and Vitamin D. Most tuna species have approximately 2 grams of fat per 113 gram portion and less than 45 milligrams of cholesterol and sodium.
What are the worst foods for high cholesterol?
They suggest limiting the following foods to achieve this:
- fatty beef.
Recommended Reading: Is Shrimp Bad For Your Cholesterol
Triglycerides In Your Blood
In addition to cholesterol, your blood also contains a type of fat called triglycerides, which are stored in your bodys fat deposits. Hormones release triglycerides to make energy between meals.
When you eat, your body converts any extra energy it doesnt need right away into triglycerides.
Like cholesterol, your body needs triglycerides to work properly. However, there is evidence to suggest that some people with high triglycerides are at increased risk of heart disease and stroke.
If you regularly eat more energy than you need, you may have high triglycerides .
What Makes Hdl Cholesterol So Good
HDL is short for high-density lipoprotein. Each bit of HDL cholesterol is a microscopic blob that consists of a rim of lipoprotein surrounding a cholesterol center. The HDL cholesterol particle is dense compared to other types of cholesterol particles, so it’s called high-density.
Cholesterol isn’t all bad. In fact, cholesterol is an essential fat. It provides stability in every cell of your body.
To travel through the bloodstream, cholesterol has to be transported by helper molecules called lipoproteins. Each lipoprotein has its own preferences for cholesterol, and each acts differently with the cholesterol it carries.
Experts believe HDL cholesterol may act in a variety of helpful ways that tend to reduce the risk for heart disease:
- HDL cholesterol scavenges and removes LDL — or “bad” — cholesterol.
- HDL reduces, reuses, and recycles LDL cholesterol by transporting it to the liver where it can be reprocessed.
- HDL cholesterol acts as a maintenance crew for the inner walls of blood vessels. Damage to the inner walls is the first step in the process of atherosclerosis, which causes heart attacks and strokes. HDL scrubs the wall clean and keeps it healthy
Also Check: Does Tuna Lower Cholesterol
What About Triglycerides
Triglycerides are another common source of fat found in the bloodstream, which provide a major source of energy. If you consume more energy from foods and beverages than what you need throughout the day, this energy is converted into triglycerides by the liver and stored within fat cells, ready for use later.
If you are consistently eating more energy than you burn, over time it is likely that you will have high triglycerides.
High triglycerides can lower levels of HDL and increase heart disease risk and have been linked to atherosclerosis and inflammation of the pancreas.
The good news is that you can lower your triglycerides rapidly through dietary changes.
Who Needs To Get Checked
Everyone should get their cholesterol checked, starting at age 20 and then every 4 to 6 years after that if their risk remains low.
After age 40, your doctor may want to check your levels more often. Typically, people assigned male at birth who are ages 45 to 65, along with people assigned female at birth who are ages 55 to 65, should have their cholesterol checked every 1 to 2 years.
Everyones risk for high cholesterol goes up with age. This is because the older we get, the harder it becomes for our bodies to filter out cholesterol.
A family history of high cholesterol can also increase risk.
While its impossible to control aging and family history, there are some behaviors that increase the risk of developing high cholesterol that can be changed
Individuals living with obesity and type 2 diabetes are more at risk for an increase in bad cholesterol and a dip in good cholesterol.
Its important to work with your doctor, who can provide support and resources, to help you adhere to their recommendations on how to lower your risk. Recommendations may include losing excess weight and focusing on finding what works best for you in managing your diabetes.
Other behaviors that may put you at a higher risk include:
- smoking, which can damage blood vessels and may lower good cholesterol
- eating a diet high in saturated and trans fat, which includes foods like fatty meats and dairy-based desserts
- not getting enough physical movement throughout the week
- drinking an excess of alcohol
You May Like: How Much Cholesterol Does Shrimp Have