What Is The Difference Between Hdl And Ldl Cholesterol
Cholesterol doesnt dissolve in blood. To be transported in the bloodstream, cholesterol is packed into two types of carriers: low-density lipoproteins or high-density lipoproteins . LDL cholesterol, which is sometimes known as bad cholesterol, is necessary in limited quantities , but high LDL cholesterol levels can dramatically increase your risk of a heart attack. Thats because LDL particles can contribute to atherosclerosisor clogged arteries. HDL cholesterolsometimes called good cholesterolhelps clear LDL cholesterol from the arteries.
When doctors measure cholesterol levels, they first look at total cholesterol as a quick way to assess a persons risk. For a more exact guide, they divide the total level by the HDL level. Heart attack risk is minimized by having a lower total cholesterol and a higher proportion of HDL cholesterol. The ratio of total cholesterol to HDL should be less than 4 to 1.
Unfortunately, the average American man has a ratio of 5 to 1. Vegetarians, on the other hand, average about 3 to 1. Smoking and obesity lower HDL vigorous exercise and foods rich in vitamin C may increase it.
Plasma Transport And Regulation Of Absorption
As an isolated molecule, cholesterol is only minimally soluble in water, or hydrophilic. Because of this, it dissolves in blood at exceedingly small concentrations. To be transported effectively, cholesterol is instead packaged within lipoproteins, complex discoidal particles with exterior amphiphilic proteins and lipids, whose outward-facing surfaces are water-soluble and inward-facing surfaces are lipid-soluble. This allows it to travel through the blood via emulsification. Unbound cholesterol, being amphipathic, is transported in the monolayer surface of the lipoprotein particle along with phospholipids and proteins. Cholesterol esters bound to fatty acid, on the other hand, are transported within the fatty hydrophilic core of the lipoprotein, along with triglyceride.
There are several types of lipoproteins in the blood. In order of increasing density, they are chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoprotein , intermediate-density lipoprotein , low-density lipoprotein , and high-density lipoprotein . Lower protein/lipid ratios make for less dense lipoproteins. Cholesterol within different lipoproteins is identical, although some is carried as its native “free” alcohol form , while others as fatty acyl esters, known also as cholesterol esters, within the particles.
You Dont Need To Avoid Eggs And Seafood
Some foods are high in cholesterol but are fine to eat in moderation, as long as your overall diet is low in saturated fats. For example:
- Egg yolks a single egg yolk contains 200250 mg of cholesterol, which is almost the uppermost recommended daily intake . However, reducing egg intake is probably not important for healthy people with normal blood cholesterol levels.
- Seafood prawns and seafood contain some cholesterol, but they are low in saturated fat and also contain healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Seafood is a healthy food and should not be avoided just because it contains cholesterol. However, avoid fried and battered seafood.
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Plant Stanols And Sterols
“Sterols and stanols are plant compounds which have a similar size and shape to cholesterol. They work by blocking the absorption of cholesterol in the gut, so reducing the amount of cholesterol getting into the bloodstream,” explains Garton.
Tiny amounts of sterols and stanols can be found in a range of plant-based foods but eating fortified foods like milk, yoghurt drinks and spreads can help you to eat enough.
“Eating 1.5 to 2.4 g of plant sterol or stanols daily can reduce blood cholesterol by between 7 and 10% over the course of two to three weeks,” says Garton. It’s important to note that they need to be eaten on a regular basis and as part of a meal because they only work by mixing with the food you have eaten.
When Should My Cholesterol Levels Be Tested
Your GP may recommend that you have your blood cholesterol levels tested if you:
- have been diagnosed with coronary heart disease, stroke or mini stroke , or peripheral arterial disease
- have a family history of early cardiovascular disease
- have a close family member who has a cholesterol-related condition
- are overweight
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Prepare Your Food A Little Differently
Its not only what you eat its how you eat it. Just as you can change what you buy in the grocery store, you can also choose healthier ways to make your food that help lower your cholesterol naturally. For example:
- Trim fat and remove the skin when cooking meat or fish. This helps you get the protein while reducing fat intake.
- Focus on boiling, broiling, baking, poaching or grilling. These are better methods of preparation than deep frying or breading, which can bring in extra fat.
What Is Insoluble Fiber
Insoluble fiber is generally referred to as “roughage.” Insoluble fiber promotes regularity, adds bulk and softness to stools, helps with weight regulation and helps prevent many gastrointestinal disorders. Good sources on insoluble fiber include:
- Wheat bran and whole wheat or grain bread/bread products, pasta, cereal and crackers.
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Dr Chris Reveals How Eyes Can Indicate High Cholesterol Levels
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Millions of Britons have high cholesterol levels, with some estimates placing the number at a whopping 40 percent of the population. Primarily caused by a fatty diet and not enough exercise, high cholesterol is a dangerous health condition that can lead to heart disease, cardiac arrest or a stroke. But do you know the symptoms in your eyes to look out for?
Misconception: If The Nutrition Facts Label Shows No Cholesterol The Food Is Heart Healthy
A foods Nutrition Facts label can be helpful for choosing heart-healthy foods, if you know what to look for.
Many foods marketed as low-cholesterol have high levels of saturated or trans fats, both of which raise blood cholesterol.
Look for how much saturated fat, trans fat and total calories are in a serving. Ingredients are listed in descending order of use, so choose products where fats and oils are near the end of the ingredients list.
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Do Cholesterol Levels Fluctuate Daily Or Seasonally
QUESTION: I’m being honest, I do everything I’m told. I stuck to the diet,stopped smoking and exercised. Yet I can’t make head or tails out of thechanges in my cholesterol levels. My doctor says the lab is a good one andthe tests are dependable. Can cholesterol levels change with the weather?——————————————————————————
How Long Does It Take To Lower Cholesterol
Your cholesterol levels are directly tied to your heart health, which is why its so important to make sure theyre in a healthy range. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , reports that 78 million adults in the United States had high levels of low-density lipoprotein , or bad cholesterol, in 2012. The organization also states that people with high LDL cholesterol are at a much higher risk of heart disease.
Dr. Nieca Goldberg, medical director of the Joan H. Tisch Center for Womens Health at the NYU Langone Medical Center, says it can take between three to six months to see lower LDL numbers through just diet and exercise, noting that it takes longer to see changes in women than men.
Read on for more information on how to lower your LDL levels.
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The Liver And Cholesterol: What You Should Know
Introduction and overview
Balanced cholesterol levels are important to maintaining good health. The liver is an underrecognized part of that effort.
The liver is the largest gland in the body, located in the upper right part of the belly. It is the bodys master detoxer of drugs and other foreign substances. It stores glycogen, which the body uses for energy. Its also important in metabolizing fat, carbohydrates, and proteins. A healthy liver does all this unnoticed.
An important function of the liver is to produce and clear cholesterol in the body. Most of the attention focused on cholesterol describes its potential for harmful health effects. But cholesterol is necessary for the creation of hormones, vitamin D, and enzymes needed for digestion.
Bundles called lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout the body. Two important types are high-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins . High and low refer to the relative proportion of protein to fat in the bundle. The body needs both types in regulated proportions.
Its important to know the levels of HDL , LDL , and total cholesterol in your body. A rough estimate of total cholesterol is HDL, plus LDL, plus one-fifth of a third type of fat called triglyceride.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommends the following levels:
|LDL cholesterol levels|
What About Healthy People With Moderately Elevated Cholesterol Levels
What about healthy people who dont fit into the above categories? The guidelines provide clear guidance, but things do get a bit more nuanced. Here, there really needs to be a discussion between the patient and their doctor.
Whether to start a statin or not depends on whether there are other cardiovascular risk factors, such as smoking, high blood pressure, or diabetes, and the actual LDL-C level. A family history of premature atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease would be another factor to consider, as might South Asian ethnicity or premature menopause . Other blood test abnormalities, such as elevated triglycerides or elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels , might also push towards starting someone on a statin. Another recommendation in the new guidelines is for potential use of coronary artery calcium scans to decide whether or not to initiate statin therapy in select cases where the decision based on clinical risk factors is unclear. Patient preferences and cost are other potential issues to weigh. Online risk calculators may help.
Bottom line: If you are one of the large number of people who fall into this category, talk to your doctor about whether you should be on medications to lower your cholesterol, or whether lifestyle changes are enough.
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Work In Some More Movement To Your Daily Tasks
Do you need to start running every day? Do you need to join a gym or buy a bunch of home fitness equipment? If you want to, go ahead! But there are many other choices, and finding a routine that works for you is whats most important.
Ideally, you want to aim for at least 2.5 hours of moderate physical activity every week. You can break that up however you like. You might focus on doing something every day, or you could dedicate yourself to just a few days per week. The key is to just get started.
For example, do you usually take the elevator? Take the stairs instead. Do you walk your dog every day? Go a little farther than usual, or walk at a faster pace. Need to go shopping? Park farther away than you normally do. Catching up on your favorite TV series? Try stretching, dumbbells or kettlebells while youre watching rather than just sitting on the couch. Also look for chances to bring motion into your daily life, such as walking while you talk on the phone.
If youre feeling good, work up to more intense physical activity, like lap swimming, jogging or hot yoga. Dont overexert yourself, but remember that regular and consistent exercise has benefits beyond managing your cholesterol. It also helps reduce blood pressure and builds your overall physical, mental and emotional well-being.
Even if you just go a little farther or a little faster than you usually do, that extra activity will be a big step in the right direction for your health.
How Can I Lower Cholesterol With Diet
Heart-healthy lifestyle changes include a diet to lower your cholesterol. The DASH eating plan is one example. Another is the Therapeutic Lifestyle Changes diet, which recommends that you
Choose healthier fats.You should limit both total fat and saturated fat. No more than 25 to 35% of your daily calories should come from dietary fats, and less than 7% of your daily calories should come from saturated fat. Depending upon how many calories you eat per day, here are the maximum amounts of fats that you should eat:
|Calories per Day|
|69-97 grams||17 grams|
Saturated fat is a bad fat because it raises your LDL level more than anything else in your diet. It is found in some meats, dairy products, chocolate, baked goods, and deep-fried and processed foods.
Trans fat is another bad fat it can raise your LDL and lower you HDL . Trans fat is mostly in foods made with hydrogenated oils and fats, such as stick margarine, crackers, and french fries.
Instead of these bad fats, try healthier fats, such as lean meat, nuts, and unsaturated oils like canola, olive, and safflower oils.
Limit foods with cholesterol. If you are trying to lower your cholesterol, you should have less than 200 mg a day of cholesterol. Cholesterol is in foods of animal origin, such as liver and other organ meats, egg yolks, shrimp, and whole milk dairy products.
Eat plenty of soluble fiber. Foods high in soluble fiber help prevent your digestive tract from absorbing cholesterol. These foods include
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What Should My Cholesterol Levels Be
Blood cholesterol is measured in units called millimoles per litre of blood, often shortened to mmol/L.
As a general guide, total cholesterol levels should be:
- 5mmol/L or less for healthy adults
- 4mmol/L or less for those at high risk
As a general guide, LDL levels should be:
- 3mmol/L or less for healthy adults
- 2mmol/L or less for those at high risk
An ideal level of HDL is above 1mmol/L. A lower level of HDL can increase your risk of heart disease.
Your ratio of total cholesterol to HDL may also be calculated. This is your total cholesterol level divided by your HDL level. Generally, this ratio should be below four, as a higher ratio increases your risk of heart disease.
Cholesterol is only one risk factor. The level at which specific treatment is required will depend on whether other risk factors, such as smoking and high blood pressure, are also present.
Quick Tips For Getting Started
1. Keep a food diary. Write down what you eat for a few days to get to know what your diet really looks like and where you can make changes.
2. Start small. Start with some simple swaps rather than trying to change everything all at once.
3. Try a diet plan. If you’re looking for a more detailed plan, try the Ultimate Cholesterol Lowering Plan.
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Effects Of High Cholesterol Levels
The liver is the main processing centre for cholesterol and dietary fat. When we eat animal fats, the liver transports the fat, together with cholesterol in the form of lipoproteins, into our bloodstream.
Too much cholesterol circulating within LDL in our bloodstream leads to fatty deposits developing in the arteries. This causes the vessels to narrow and they can eventually become blocked. This can lead to heart disease and stroke.
Cholesterol Targets Are Back
Much to the delight of physicians, concrete LDL-C targets have been reintroduced into this version of the guidelines. For individuals with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease who are at very high risk of cardiac complications, drug therapy beyond statins is recommended to achieve a target LDL-C of 70 mg/dl.
The first addition beyond high-intensity statins would be the now generic ezetimibe, a cholesterol-lowering drug that works by preventing the absorption of cholesterol in the intestine. If that does not do the trick, the injectable PCSK9 inhibitors are considered a reasonable next step, with the caveat that the drugs are expensive and their long-term safety beyond three years is not well established. However, since the guidelines were finalized, one of the two companies that makes PCSK9 inhibitors has lowered the list price. This may ultimately help make these potent cholesterol reducing drugs more cost-effective.
The same algorithm as above is recommended for otherwise healthy people whose LDL-C is greater than or equal to 190 mg/dL. In this case, however, the target is 100 mg/dL instead of 70 mg/dL, presumably because there is no evidence of actual atherosclerosis.
In people 40 to 75 years of age with diabetes who have an LDL-C greater than or equal to 70 mg/dL, a moderate-intensity statin is recommended. If there are additional risk factors or the person is 50 years or older, then a high-intensity statin is considered reasonable.
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Why Should I Lower My Cholesterol
Evidence strongly indicates that high cholesterol can increase the risk of:
- narrowing of the arteries
- transient ischaemic attack often known as a “mini stroke”
- peripheral arterial disease
This is because cholesterol can build up in the artery wall, restricting the blood flow to your heart, brain and the rest of your body. It also increases the risk of a blood clot developing somewhere in your body.
Your risk of developing coronary heart disease also rises as your blood’s cholesterol level increases. This can cause pain in your chest or arm during stress or physical activity .
How Is High Cholesterol Treated
If your child has an LDL cholesterol level of 130 mg/dL or higher, your doctor will talk to you about lifestyle changes or refer you to a dietitian. The goals are to:
- reduce fat and cholesterol in the diet
- increase exercise
- lose weight, if needed
Your doctor will probably do a cholesterol check again after 36 months of lifestyle changes.
Medicine might be considered for kids 10 and older whose LDL cholesterol is 190 mg/dL or higher if changes in diet and exercise haven’t worked. Kids with risk factors, such as diabetes or high blood pressure or a family history of high cholesterol or heart disease, may need treatment at lower LDL levels.
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