Inhibitors Of Human El
Recently, GlaxoSmithKline reported a series of EL irreversible inhibitors featuring a sulfonylfuran urea core identified in a high-throughput screening campaign . A lead optimization effort was undertaken to improve the potency and selectivity, leading to inhibitors with improved LPL selectivity . O’Connell et al. more recently reported the synthesis of alkyl, aryl, and acyl-substituted phenylboronic acids that inhibit EL, many with near equal potency against both EL and LPL, but several compounds exhibited moderate to good selectivity for EL . Clearly, the development of highly EL-selective inhibitors is desired. The discovery of such a molecule would provide a novel means by which to specifically raise HDL-C.
Does High Hdl Offset High Ldl
4.5/5HDL doesLDLLDLcholesterolhigh HDLLDLhighHDLhigh
Similarly one may ask, why do I have high HDL and high LDL?
People with high triglycerides often have a high total cholesterol level, including a high LDL cholesterol level and a low HDL cholesterol level. Underlying diseases or genetic disorders can also cause high triglyceride levels.
Likewise, what should I do if my LDL is high? 1.Eat heart-healthy foods
What Does Hdl Cholesterol Do
HDL clears from the body via the liver. HDL may therefore prevent the buildup of plaque, protect your arteries, and protect you from atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. It is considered the good cholesterol, and higher levels are better. A good goal to aim for is higher than 55 mg/dL for women and 45 mg/dL for men. The higher your HDL cholesterol numbers, the lower your risk is for heart disease, vascular disease, and stroke.
Managing Your Cholesterol Means Monitoring Your Numbers And Living A Healthy Lifestyle For Starters Understand The Hdl Vs Ldl Equation
When it comes to the HDL vs. LDL debate, is there a clear-cut answer as to which cholesterol number is more important? Our contributing editor sorts things out and leads you to a clear winnersort of.
Youve probably heard high-density lipoprotein cholesterol described as the good cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein as the bad cholesterol. But when it comes to which type of cholesterol is most important to control, who wins the HDL vs. LDL matchup?
If only it were that simple.
Theres considerable debate in medical circles about the importance of reaching certain target levels of LDL, HDL, and a type of blood fat called triglycerides. These measurements comprise your lipid profile. And your lipid profile is one way doctors can determine your risk for cardiovascular disease and a heart attack.
Even though cardiologists and researchers have learned much about how cholesterol functions in the body and how it and other risk factors determine your likelihood of a heart attack, many questions continue to swirl. Is HDL vs. LDL the most important question? Are high triglyceride levels the real enemy? Is cholesterol ratio the key set of numbers? And just what should your levels be?
What Is The Difference Between Good And Bad Cholesterol
Cholesterol a waxy substance that builds in the arteries is not completely harmful, despite its reputation for being bad for you. In fact, some of it can even improve your health when consumed in the right amounts.
The physicians at the USC CardioVascular Thoracic Institute at Keck Medicine of USC can measure your good cholesterol and bad cholesterol levels, and help you adopt healthier eating and living habits so you can achieve the best balance of both.
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If Cholesterol Is Necessary Why Do We Have To Worry About How Much We Have
Having enough cholesterol to meet your needs is important. Having too much cholesterol can cause problems. If your cholesterol levels are high, the condition is called hypercholesterolemia. If your cholesterol levels are low, the condition is called hypocholesterolemia. It is not common to have cholesterol levels that are too low, but it can happen.
How Can You Prevent High Cholesterol Levels And Coronary Heart Disease
Prevention methods are very much the same as treatment methods. First, dont smoke. If you do smoke, make plans to quit now. Find ways to add physical activity to each of your days. Take steps to keep your weight in a healthy range. Eat well. Consider following the Mediterranean diet. It is the only diet proven to reduce the risk of heart disease. Take care of any other medical conditions you might have by following your healthcare providers advice and instructions. Learn to really relax and calm down.
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How To Lower Cholesterol: Smart Protein
To reduce cholesterol, limit red meat and eat more fish and lean poultry.
How to Prepare Healthy Proteins
- Trim all fat from meats, and remove all skin from poultry before cooking.
- Broil or bake, don’t fry foods.
- Drain fat from any meats before serving.
- Avoid processed meats such as hot dogs or cold cuts, even those labeled “reduced fat,” as many are still high in saturated fats and calories.
- Oily fish such as salmon or trout are high in omega-3 fatty acids, which can reduce triglyceride levels and improve HDL cholesterol levels.
- Soy proteins can also have a beneficial effect and help to reduce LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, while raising HDL cholesterol levels.
What Are Normal Levels Of Cholesterol
Normal levels of cholesterol are different depending on your age and sex. These guidelines show desirable total, non-HDL, LDL and HDL levels by age and sex.
Table 1: Target cholesterol levels by age and sex
|Age and sex|
People aged 19 years and younger Men aged 20 years and olderWomen aged 20 years and older
The table above spells out the numbers for normal cholesterol levels. The table below shows cholesterol levels that are higher than normal. High cholesterol numbers vary by age group and sex and may be different for those who have heart disease. These guidelines represent high cholesterol numbers for those who do not have heart disease.
Table 2: High total, non-HDL and LDL cholesterol levels by age and sex
|Age and sex|
|People aged 19 years and younger|
Borderline: 170-199 mg/dL
High: Greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL
Borderline: 120-144 mg/dL
High: Greater than or equal to 145 mg/dL
Borderline: 110-129 mg/dL
High: Greater than or equal to 130 mg/dL
High: Greater than or equal to 239 mg/dL
Near optimal or above optimal: 100-129 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
Very high: Greater than 189 mg/dL
High: Greater than or equal to 239 mg/dL
Near optimal or above optimal: 100-129 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
Very high: Greater than 189 mg/dL
LDL cholesterol levels
If you do not have heart disease or blood vessel disease, and you are not at high risk for developing heart disease, the optimal number is less than 100 mg/dL.
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What Causes High Cholesterol
Your liver produces cholesterol, but you also get cholesterol from food. Eating too many foods that are high in fat can increase your cholesterol level.
Being overweight and inactive also causes high cholesterol. If you are overweight, you most likely have a higher level of triglycerides. If you never exercise and arent active in general, it can lower your HDL .
You family history also affects your cholesterol level. Research has shown that high cholesterol tends to run in families. If you have an immediate family member who has it, you could have it, too.
Smoking also causes high cholesterol. It lowers your HDL .
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Total Cholesterol To Hdl Ratios
The total cholesterol to HDL cholesterol ratio can help a person know if they are consuming enough good cholesterol and to limit sources of bad cholesterol. It can be measured by dividing the total cholesterol by the HDL level.
Ideally, the ratio should be below 4. The lower this number is, the healthier a persons cholesterol levels are.
Total cholesterol does fluctuate, so more than one blood test might be required for an accurate assessment. Levels can change following a meal, so sometimes a blood test will be taken first thing in the morning before a person has breakfast.
suggest that the total cholesterol to HDL ratio is a better marker of the risk of heart disease than LDL cholesterol levels alone.
Another method of assessing cholesterol levels is calculating a non-HDL cholesterol level. This is measured by subtracting HDL cholesterol from the total cholesterol.
This method is considered to be more accurate by some doctors because it includes very low-density lipoprotein levels in the calculation.
Similarly to LDL cholesterol, VLDL cholesterol can also build up inside the walls of blood vessels, which is undesirable.
Ideally, a non-HDL cholesterol level should be less than 130 mg/dL. A higher value than that increases the risk for heart disease.
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Symptoms Of High Cholesterol
Often, there are no specific symptoms of high cholesterol. You could have high cholesterol and not know it.
If you have high cholesterol, your body may store the extra cholesterol in your arteries. These are blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to the rest of your body. A buildup of cholesterol in your arteries is known as plaque. Over time, plaque can become hard and make your arteries narrow. Large deposits of plaque can completely block an artery. Cholesterol plaques can also break apart, leading to formation of a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood.
A blocked artery to the heart can cause a heart attack. A blocked artery to your brain can cause a stroke.
Many people dont discover that they have high cholesterol until they suffer one of these life-threatening events. Some people find out through routine check-ups that include blood tests.
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How To Lower Ldl Cholesterol
Lifestyle and diet changes are the main ways to prevent or lower high LDL. A trial of eating a low-fat diet, regular aerobic activity, maintaining a healthy weight, and smaller waist circumference is an appropriate first step. It is best to set a timeline to achieve your goals with your doctor. In some cases, if those lifestyle changes are not enough, your physician may suggest a cholesterol lowering medication, such as a statin. If you are considering over-the-counter herbal or ayurvedic medications for cholesterol, please discuss those with your physician first as well.
Rarely, very high LDL is genetic and passed down in families. This is called familial hypercholesterolemia and is caused by a genetic mutation that decreases the livers ability to clear excess cholesterol. This condition can lead to very high LDL levels, and heart attack or stroke at a young age in multiple generations. Those individuals may require special medical treatment for prevention and treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease.
Remember, knowledge is the first step. If you dont know your cholesterol levels, get tested. That will give you and your physician a starting point for lifestyle changes and medications if needed. In the meantime, adopt a heart-healthy lifestyle, and do it with friends and family no matter their ages. Theres no time like the present to prevent heart disease.
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High Cholesterol High Ldl High Hdl
In some situations a high cholesterol may be healthy, if HDL levels, triglycerides, and other are good. You can calculate your risk for developing heart disease here.
Patinets with high HDL levels and low levels of triglycerides may actually be at a lower risk for heart disease than people with normal cholesterol levels who have lower levels of good cholesterol and higher levels of bad cholesterol .
LDL = Total Cholesterol HDL .
Although this equation is fairly accurate and widely employed by a number of laboratories, there are certain factors that could cause your LDL cholesterol levels to be incorrect:
- Triglyceride levels over 400 mg/dL or eating just before having your cholesterol levels checked.
- This calculation also doesnt diffrentiate between LDL A or B .
Studies have shown that there is a strong correlation between a low triglyceride/high HDL level and LDL pattern A .
On the other hand, a high triglyceride/low HDL level is strongly associated with LDL pattern B . In other words, high triglycerides are an independent risk factor for heart disease. Direct measurements of LDL can also be used in cases where triglycerides are very high.
A Faster & Easer Solution For Healthier Cholesterol Levels
There are a few ways for promoting healthier cholesterol levels within a normal, youthful range – diet and exercise being two important factors.
Unfortunately, they take time and most people are either NOT patient or need faster results, with less effort…
This is the exact problem I ran into with my own parents.
Because of this, I needed to find a simple, easy and fast solution for promoting healthier lipid levels in less than 30 days, without the use of harmful prescription drugs, worthless supplements or following a restrictive diet.
If this is something you’re also interested in, you can easily copy this “proven formula”, implement it and start seeing and feeling results within days…
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Endothelial Lipase As A Therapeutic Target For Dyslipidemia
Endothelial lipase is a member of the TG lipase gene family . It has both phospholipase and TG lipase activity, but it is more active as a phospholipase than as a TG lipase . The link between EL and HDL-C was established following mouse studies suggesting that changes in EL levels influence HDL-C metabolism. EL cloned into an adenoviral vector and transfected into COS cells demonstrated that in vitro HDL-C particles are the preferred source of EL substrate for all lipoprotein fractions . Furthermore, a significant increase in plasma HDL-C in mice was observed when the EL gene was knocked out . Using genetic mouse models with altered levels of EL expression, Ishida et al. reported a strong inverse correlation between HDL levels and EL expression. Furthermore, recent studies showed that targeted EL deletion increases HDL particles with anti-inflammatory properties both in vitro and in vivo . This was further supported by the finding that inhibition of EL activity in mice using an EL antibody resulted in a significant increase in HDL-C. Conversely, overexpression of EL in transgenic animals resulted in a significant decrease in HDL-C . These data suggested that EL, at least in mice, plays an important role in HDL-C metabolism. Further genetic association studies in humans demonstrated inverse correlations between EL and HDL-C levels .
How Do You Boost Your Hdl Level In Your Blood
Here are nine healthy ways to raise your “good” HDL cholesterol.
- Lard, dripping and goose fat.
- Fatty meat and meat products such as sausages.
- Full fat cheese, milk, cream and yogurt.
- Coconut and palm oils and coconut cream.
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What Makes Ldl Cholesterol Too High
A range of medical and lifestyle factors cause high LDL, including:
- Diet: Diets high in saturated fats, salts, and cholesterol and low in healthy proteins and fiber can lead to high LDL.
- Lack of physical activity: Not getting enough exercise and being sedentary contributes to weight gain and can also push levels up. You may see higher LDL if you don’t get a minimum of 30 minutes a day of activity.
- Weight status: Being overweight or obese greatly increases the chances of developing high LDL. Even modest gains in weight can push levels to unhealthy ranges.
- Alcohol and tobacco: Smoking and drinking are both associated with high cholesterol, among many other detrimental effects on health.
- Genetics: High LDL can be inherited, a condition called familial hypercholesterolemia . The severity of FH ranges, but those with the homozygous formin which both parents are carriers of the faulty genemay have extremely high amounts of this type of cholesterol.
- Medications: Taking several classes of drugs can lead to spikes in LDL. These include those for heart disease, high blood pressure, inflammation, certain viruses, and seizures, among other conditions. Talk to your doctor about how these prescriptions may impact cholesterol.
- Health conditions: Diseases and conditions that cause high LDL include type 2 diabetes, pregnancy, chronic kidney disease, and hypothyroidism.
How Total Cholesterol Is Measured
This is done using a blood test called a lipoprotein panel, which also measures your triglycerides. For this test, you provide a blood sample thats taken after youve fasted for 9 to 12 hours before your test.
Your total cholesterol score is calculated using the equation: HDL level + LDL level + 20% of your triglyceride level.
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Can High Cholesterol Be Prevented Or Avoided
Making healthy food choices and exercising are two ways to reduce your risk of developing high cholesterol.
Eat fewer foods with saturated fats . Choose healthier fats. This includes lean meats, avocados, nuts, and low-fat dairy items. Avoid foods that contain trans fat . Look for foods that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. These foods include salmon, herring, walnuts, and almonds. Some egg brands contain omega-3.
Exercise can be simple. Go for a walk. Take a yoga class. Ride your bike to work. You could even participate in a team sport. Aim to get 30 minutes of activity every day.
How Do I Know What My Ldl Level Is
A blood test can measure your cholesterol levels, including LDL. When and how often you should get this test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:
For people who are age 19 or younger::
- The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
- Children should have the test again every 5 years
- Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke
For people who are age 20 or older::
- Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
- Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
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