What Are Hdl Ldl And Vldl
HDL, LDL, and VLDL are lipoproteins. They are a combination of fat and protein. The lipids need to be attached to the proteins so they can move through the blood. Different types of lipoproteins have different purposes:
- HDL stands for high-density lipoprotein. It is sometimes called “good” cholesterol because it carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. Your liver then removes the cholesterol from your body.
- LDL stands for low-density lipoprotein. It is sometimes called “bad” cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to the buildup of plaque in your arteries.
- VLDL stands for very low-density lipoprotein. Some people also call VLDL a “bad” cholesterol because it too contributes to the buildup of plaque in your arteries. But VLDL and LDL are different VLDL mainly carries triglycerides and LDL mainly carries cholesterol.
The Second Nail In The Cholesterol Theory Coffin
By 2014, the medical community had at least become aware enough of the issue to debate it. The April 14th issue of the Journal of the American Medical Association inaugurated a new feature called Viewpointan in magazine debating forum for arguing out key medical issues of the day. Think of it like a civilized version of Dan Aykroyd and Jane Curtains Point/Counterpoint sketches on Saturday Night Live.3http://www.hulu.com/watch/2306 The subject of the first debate was statin drugsor more precisely: Should a 55-year-old man who is otherwise well, with systolic blood pressure of 110 mm Hg, total cholesterol of 250 mg/dL and no family history of premature CHD be treated with a statin?
Needless to say, despite the overwhelming evidence presented by the team from the Archives of Internal Medicine, the debate changed little. Like the zombies in World War Z,7http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HcwTxRuq-uk statin drug prescriptions continued to surge forward, chasing down the living and their life force as represented by their medical insurance dollars.
The Association Between Cholesterol And Heart Disease
The 20152020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans doesnt include a specific limit, it still strongly recommends eating as little dietary cholesterol as possible. It mentions studies and trials that have produced strong evidence that healthy eating patterns that are low in dietary cholesterol can reduce the risk of heart disease in adults.
An eight-week study published in 2016 stated that elevated LDL is an established risk factor for heart disease and that dietary fatty acids play a significant role in the development of heart disease. The researchers found that making minor dietary changes reduced cholesterol and could potentially reduce future risk of heart disease.
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When To Worry About Heart Palpitations
By Stephen T. Sinatra, M.D., F.A.C.C., F.A.C.N., C.N.S., C.B.T.
At some point in our lives, most all of us will experience heart fluttering, racing, skipping, or another kind of irregular heartbeat. Its incredibly common. But because it affects the heart, it also can be incredibly frightening.
Myself, Ive had a couple episodes with PVCs . Let me tell you, they get your attention!
I saw hundreds of patients over the years who were concerned about heart palpitations. In many of those cases, the irregular beats turned out to be 100 percent benignnothing to worry about. But I also saw a lot of people whose palpitations were their bodies way of telling them that their heart needed help.
Myth : If You Have Smoked For Years You Can’t Reduce Your Risk Of Heart Disease By Quitting
The benefits of quitting smoking start the minute you quit, no matter your age, how long you have smoked, or how many cigarettes a day you have smoked. Only one year after quitting, your heart attack risk will have dropped by 50% in 10 years, it will be the same as if you never smoked.
What you can do: Seek help to quit smoking. Many people require stop-smoking aids, such as nicotine patches, nicotine gum, or a stop-smoking medication, to be successful.
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Myth : It’s Okay To Have Higher Blood Pressure When You’re Older
Blood pressure tends to rise with age, but the fact that this trend is “normal” doesn’t mean that it is good for you. It happens because artery walls become stiff with age. Stiff arteries force the heart to pump harder. This sets up a vicious cycle. Blood pounding against the artery walls damages them over time. The overworked heart muscle becomes less effective and pumps harder to meet the body’s demands for blood. This further damages the arteries and invites fat into the artery walls. This is how high blood pressure increases the risk of heart attack and stroke.
What you can do: Have your blood pressure checked. If it’s above 140/90 millimeters of mercury, ask your doctor what you can do to bring it down.
Things You Can Do To Reduce The Risk Of Heart Diseases:
Fortunately, there are things that you can do to lower the chances of getting heart disease. Are you interested to learn more about them? A few of them are mentioned below.
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Myth: Eating Foods With A Lot Of Cholesterol Will Not Make My Cholesterol Levels Go Up
Fact: It can be complicated. We know that foods with a lot of cholesterol usually also have a lot of saturated fat. Saturated fats can make your cholesterol numbers higher, so its best to choose foods that are lower in saturated fats. Foods made from animals, including red meat, butter, and cheese, have a lot of saturated fats.
Instead, aim to eat foods with plenty of fiber, such as oatmeal and beans, and healthy unsaturated fats, such as avocados, olive oil, and nuts. Learn more about healthy diets and nutrition at CDCs nutrition, physical activity, and obesity website.
Talk with your health care provider about ways to manage your cholesterol. Learn more about medicines to lower cholesterol.
Wait I Thought Eggs Are Healthy
Eggs are such a cornerstone of the American diet, a high-protein breakfast option that’s quick and easy and in seemingly everything from scrambles to baked goods. And they’ve often been touted as a healthy option thanks to their nutritional profile: protein, B12, Omega-3s, selenium, iron, zinc, copper, vitamins D, B6, B12.
But unfortunately, the cholesterol levels in eggs outweigh the benefits. Too much dietary cholesterol isn’t just associated with higher heart disease risk, the regular consumption of eggs and other high cholesterol animal products promotes cancer growth and Alzheimer’s disease, too.
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Sleep And Blood Pressure
During normal, healthy sleep, blood pressure drops by around 10-20%. This is known as nocturnal dipping, and research highlights its role in cardiovascular health.
Poor sleep, whether from a lack of sleep or sleep disruptions, is associated with non-dipping, meaning that a persons blood pressure doesnt go down at night. Studies have found that elevated nighttime blood pressure is tied to overall hypertension .
In fact, nocturnal blood pressure has been found to be even more predictive of heart problems than high blood pressure during the day. Non-dipping has been tied to an increased risk of stroke and heart attack. Its also been linked to kidney problems and reduced blood flow to the brain.
Raised daytime blood pressure has been identified as a consequence of sleep deprivation in multiple studies, but it doesnt affect all people equally. The link between lack of sleep and high blood pressure is highest in middle-aged adults. People who work long hours in high-stress jobs and people with other risk factors for hypertension are more likely to have raised blood pressure after chronic poor sleep.
Does High Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease
In our guide on saturated fat and heart disease we introduced the three steps that lead to the cholesterol theory of heart disease:
1) Saturated fat in the diet increases the amount of bad cholesterol in the blood2) Higher levels of bad cholesterol clog the arteries and lead to heart disease.
3) Saturated fat increases the risk of heart disease.
We discussed how the evidence supporting this third claim seemed very weak. In this guide well be looking at the second claim: Do higher blood cholesterol levels cause heart disease?
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What Diet Is Best For Lowering Cholesterol
The good news is, just as diet can contribute to high cholesterol, the foods we eat can also have a healing effect.
Studies show having a total cholesterol of even slightly less than 200 , adds another four to nine years in life expectancy compared to people that have total cholesterol of 240 and above.
Need to lower your cholesterol? A healthy, plant-based diet. Plants have zero cholesterol and promote a healthy, strong cardiovascular system. And the powerful antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are found in abundance in whole plant-based foods help prevent heart disease and even reverse it.
So load up on a healthy diet filled with fruits, vegetables, legumes, and whole grains. And don’t forget to add in regular moderate exercise and avoid tobacco and alcohol to keep severe heart disease at bay.
Can High Cholesterol Be Prevented Or Avoided
Making healthy food choices and exercising are two ways to reduce your risk of developing high cholesterol.
Eat fewer foods with saturated fats . Choose healthier fats. This includes lean meats, avocados, nuts, and low-fat dairy items. Avoid foods that contain trans fat . Look for foods that are rich in omega-3 fatty acids. These foods include salmon, herring, walnuts, and almonds. Some egg brands contain omega-3.
Exercise can be simple. Go for a walk. Take a yoga class. Ride your bike to work. You could even participate in a team sport. Aim to get 30 minutes of activity every day.
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The Indications To Heart Disease Risk Factors And Prevention
Heart disease is one of the primary causes of concern behind deaths in the United States and other corners of the world. It is also the leading occurrence of disability and morbidity in many worldwide. There are a few things that can increase the risk of getting a heart disorder. Some of them you can control, and some of them you cannot.
As the saying goes, Prevention is better than Cure. It implies perfectly here, as being aware and cautious early is a positive start that can reduce the probability of getting heart problems.
Does High Cholesterol Cause Heart Disease What Research Says
For decades, researches and studies have shown that diet and levels of cholesterol play a significant role in keeping the heart healthy. According to many recent studies, the connection between cholesterol and heart disease is complex. Lets dig into more to know.
The Connection between High Cholesterol and Heart Disease
According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans of 2010, the consumption of dietary cholesterol should be limited to 300 mg a day. On the other hand, the Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2015-2020 doesnt specify any limit but suggested consuming dietary cholesterol as minimum as possible. In this, there are many trials and studies mention that shows strong evidence of the association between Cholesterol and heart disease. It is concluded that eating healthy foods that contain low dietary cholesterol help reduce the occurrence of heart diseases in adults.
Another study published in 2016 shows that raised LDL levels can increase heart disease risk. This eight-week conducted study also states that dietary fatty acids play an important role in heart disease development.
Also, researchers found that changing dietary patterns reduced the risk of high cholesterol and eventually lower the heart disease risk.
Another side of this Research
Many newer researchers examine and question the role of high cholesterol in heart disease development.
Role of Trans Fats
What we conclude
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What Are The Warning Signs Of High Cholesterol
One important fact to keep in mind about cholesterol is that there often would not be any noticeable signs that your levels are getting high. By the time you might start showing symptoms, its likely that you would already be at risk for heart disease. The #1 proactive measure you can take to prevent your cholesterol levels from getting high is to get your blood drawn and levels checked at your annual physical exam. Your doctor would go over your total cholesterol, LDL, HDL, and triglycerides levels with you and discuss any measures that may need to be taken to ensure you get or remain healthy.
Now, what if you havent been able to keep track of your cholesterol for one reason or another? Are there any other signs that might point to cholesterol problems?
Unfortunately, not directly. Because there are no symptoms of unhealthy cholesterol levels, the only way to know if you have an issue is to get a blood test done. High LDL can be caused by factors both within and outside of your control, so even those who eat healthily and exercise regularly are not guaranteed to be within a healthy range since genetics can be a determining factor as well.
However, that also means that you might know youre more at risk of having high cholesterol if those in your family also struggle with it. If so, its recommended that you get tested to see how youre faring and check on it at least once a year thereafter.
Myth: All Cholesterol Is Bad For You
Fact: Some types of cholesterol are essential for good health. Your body needs cholesterol to perform important jobs, such as making hormones and building cells. Cholesterol travels through the blood on proteins called lipoproteins. Two types of lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout the body:
- LDL , sometimes called bad cholesterol, makes up most of your bodys cholesterol. High levels of LDL cholesterol raise your risk for heart disease and stroke.
- HDL , or good cholesterol, carries cholesterol back to the liver. The liver then flushes it from the body. High levels of HDL cholesterol can lower your risk for heart disease and stroke.
When your body has too much LDL cholesterol, it can build up in the walls of your blood vessels. This buildup is called plaque. As your blood vessels build up plaque over time, the insides of the vessels narrow. This narrowing can restrict and eventually block blood flow to and from your heart and other organs. When blood flow to the heart is blocked, it can cause angina or a heart attack.
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What Do The Studies Say
“For decades, the mainstream view has been that an elevated level of total cholesterol is a primary cause of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease . There are several contradictions to this view, however. No study of unselected people has found an association between TC and degree of atherosclerosis”.
“Moreover, in most of the Japanese epidemiological studies, high TC is not a risk factor for stroke, and further, there is an inverse association between TC and all-cause mortality, irrespective of age and sex”.
“It is well known that total cholesterol becomes less of a risk factor or not at all for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality with increasing age, but as little is known as to whether low-density lipoprotein cholesterol , one component of total cholesterol, is associated with mortality in the elderly…” the study published in the British Medical journal decided to study this further.
Maintain A Healthy Weight
If you’re overweight or obese, a combination of regular exercise and a healthy diet can help you lose weight. Aim to get your BMI below 25.
If you’re struggling to lose weight, your GP or practice nurse can help you come up with a weight loss plan and recommend services in your area.
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The Blood Clotting Hypothesis
Many diseases are simply the result of normal healthy processes going wrong. Blood clotting is a normal healthy process. If our bodies werent able to form blood clots then we would bleed to death anytime we cut ourselves. This theory proposes that heart disease is a disease where the normal, healthy process of blood clotting goes wrong.
A small amount of damage to the blood vessel endothelium isnt a big problem. When this happens, a blood clot will form, be shaved down in size, and then a new layer of endothelium grows on top. This means the blood clot gets incorporated into the artery wall.
Interestingly, when you look at atherosclerotic plaques, they contain many similar components to a blood clot. By this theory, theyre the same thing.
When the blood clot is being shaved down in size, it triggers repair systems that increase inflammation. As we said earlier, inflammation is the bodies natural immune response to any injury. This explains why individuals with heart disease seem to have higher levels of inflammation in the body.
So up until this point, everything is a normal healthy process. Where does it go wrong? The blood clotting theory suggests that problems occur when the rate of endothelium damage is higher than the rate of repair.
- An increased rate of endothelium layer damage occurs
- Larger, harder to remove blood clots form
- The body has a reduced ability to repair/remove these blood clots
- Atherosclerosis develops over time
1) Endothelium damage