It Is The Duration Of The High High Calcium That We Are Concerned About Not How High It Has Become The Longer The Calcium Is High The More Risky Dangerous And Deadly It Becomes
High blood cholesterol itself does not cause symptoms, so many people are unaware that their cholesterol level is too high. Likewise, some people with calcium levels “just a little bit elevated” have no symptoms, while others have terrible fatigue. Many doctors will say that a lot of patients with hyperparathyroidism are “asymptomatic” because they are not counting the fatigue, GERD, memory loss, high blood pressure and osteoporosis. They are only counting the “old-time” definition of hyperparathyroid symptoms which are kidney stones and spine / hip fractures. Because of the many studies performed in the past 2 decades , we now have overwhelming evidence that virtually all patients with high blood calcium and hyperparathyroidism have symptoms, and those uncommon “asymptomatic” patients will develop symptoms if the calcium is not decreased by removing the parathyroid tumor. As you will see from reading the list of articles below and their conclusions, 10 or more years of even slightly high calcium will increase a persons risk for heart attack, stroke, heart muscle failure, cardiomyopathy, kidney failure, carotid artery thickening, aorta calcification, and more Ten years of high calcium is more dangerous than 20 years of high cholesterol.
Keeping Your Cholesterol In Check
Because itâs easy to let high cholesterol go unnoticed, nearly 1 in 3 people with high LDL numbers donât have the condition under control. That puts them at risk.
Itâs crucial that you speak to your doctor about getting your cholesterol checked, Michel says.
The American Heart Association recommends getting your cholesterol checked every 4 to 6 years starting at age 20. But if you are at risk for heart disease â for instance, if it runs in your family, or you smoke, or youâre overweight — talk it over with your doctor. âHe or she may recommend getting tested at a younger age, or more regular screenings,â Michel says.
Your target for total cholesterol is less than 180 mg/dL.If your level is higher, your doctor will consider that in along with other risk factors, such as your family history, smoking habit, and weight, to prescribe a cholesterol-lowering plan. That usually includes lifestyle steps, such as regular exercise and eating a heart-healthy diet high in whole grains, vegetables, fruit, and healthy fats. You may also need to take a cholesterol-lowering medication.
High Cholesterol And Covid
Recent research has shown that individuals with high body mass index , a marker of obesity, and high LDL cholesterolalso known as bad cholesterolare at an increased risk of getting COVID-19, but the causal link between the two is unknown.
COVID-19 research is rapidly evolving, and more is being learned about the connections between high cholesterol levels and COVID-19 risk. Scientists theorize that LDL contributes to vasculopathyor blood vessel abnormalitiesin patients with COVID-19. The virus does so by invading endothelial cells and causing injury, triggering an inflammatory reaction that leads to widespread blood clotting called coagulopathies.
The ECs within atherosclerotic plaques are more vulnerable to an attack from COVID-19 or inflammatory storms, causing a rupture of plaques and a high risk of developing coagulopathy in patients with associated cardiovascular preconditions.
High cholesterol, therefore, is a significant contributor to blood vessel injury that can lead to atherosclerosis.
If you have COVID-19 or high cholesterol, you are at high risk of cardiovascular complications, but when the two are present at the same time, you are at especially high risk of experiencing:
- Blood clots
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What Are The Symptoms Of Primary Thrombocythemia
Primary thrombocythemia usually doesnt cause symptoms. A blood clot may be the first sign that something is wrong. Blood clots can develop anywhere in your body, but theyre more likely to form in your feet, hands, or brain. The symptoms of a blood clot can vary depending on where the clot is located. Symptoms generally include:
Can You Put Time On Your Side
This process doesnât happen overnight. âIt takes years for cholesterol to build up in the arterial walls,â Goldberg says.
But the clock starts to tick sooner than you may think.
âIt can begin as early as childhood,â Goldberg says. Research shows that children can have changes in their blood vessels that leads to this buildup of plaque when they grow up.
You probably wouldnât know itâs happening unless you get a blood test. Because high cholesterol causes few symptoms, many people go years without knowing their numbers. âThatâs dangerous, because the plaque buildup you have in your 20s, 30s, or 40s doesnât go away,â Goldberg says. âIt adds up over time, which may mean a heart attack or stroke in your 50s or 60s.â
The longer you have high cholesterol, the more likely you are to develop heart disease. In one study, people who had high levels for 11 years or more had double the risk than those who had them for 10 years or less.
Most people with high cholesterol donât have any warning signs. The exception is people with a genetic disorder called hypercholesterolemia. âThey can develop fatty deposits in their skin and eyes,â Michel says. But for most of the nearly 74 million Americans with high LDL cholesterol, itâs a stealthy condition.
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Ruling Out Secondary Causes Of High Cholesterol And Triglycerides
If your doctor rules out the other causes of raised cholesterol and triglycerides listed above, then the next step is to look for other possible explanations. These include inherited causes. Tell-tale signs of inherited high cholesterol or triglyceride include:
- close family members with high cholesterol or high triglyceride
- early heart disease in close family members
- an inherited blood fat condition in close family members.
There are over 100 genes that can affect how our bodies handle blood fats. Sometimes just one small change in a gene is enough to raise cholesterol or triglycerides to very high levels. Sometime inheriting a number of genes that each have a small effect can add up to cause problems.
Inherited conditions that cause high cholesterol and triglycerides
Familial Hypercholesterolaemia raised cholesterol caused by a single gene
Familial Chylomicronaemia triglyceride levels can be extremely high, caused by a single gene
Familial Combined Hyperlipidaemia this causes raised cholesterol and triglycerides
Type 3 Hyperlipidaemia this also causes raised cholesterol and triglycerides
Polygenic Hypercholesterolaemia raised cholesterol caused by a number of genes
Role Of Platelets In Early And Late Stages Of Atherosclerosis
Platelet glycoprotein Ib , the ligand-binding subunit of the GPIb-V-IX receptor complex is known to interact with several proteins like vWF, P-selectin, Mac-1 and -thrombin . Injections of anti-GPIb antibodies in 10 weeks old ApoE/ mice reduced both platelet transient and firm adhesion to the vascular surface of the common carotid. Genetic depletion of the GPIb subunit leads to severe thrombocytopenia and reduced atherosclerosis progression with smaller lesion area . This reported protective effect could be a consequence of thrombocytopenia since mice with extracytoplasmic GPIb domain genetic deletion develop milder thrombocytopenia and are not protected against atherosclerosis . It indicates that GPIb binding site for vWF, P-selectin, Mac-1 and -thrombin might be dispensable for atherosclerosis development. This is quite surprising since vWF genetic depletion is protective in an animal model of atherosclerosis . Similarly, a role for Mac1/GPIb interaction has been shown in leukocyte recruitment at sites of vascular inflammation . The subunit GPIb has been also investigated in atherosclerosis by using GPIb//ApoE/ mice fed a chow diet for 30 weeks. Despite the moderate thrombocytopenia of those mice, GPIb was found dispensable in atheroprogression .
Table 1. A comprehensive analysis of platelet mechanisms in atheroprogression in mice .
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Platelets Contribute To Myocardial Injury
Indeed, the atherosclerotic origin of MI led to numerous studies deciphering the platelet involvement in MI. A lower platelet count or no significant difference of the platelet count was observed between MI patients and stable angina or healthy donors . However, the mean platelet volume reflecting platelet activation was higher in MI patients compared to stable coronary artery disease patients at the time of acute event . Increased levels of P-Selectin and CD63-exposing platelet microparticles have been found in MI patients . Plasma levels of vWF and serotonin are increased in patients with coronary artery syndrome highlighting the role of platelet activation in myocardial injury. Moreover, platelet-leucocyte aggregates are an early marker of acute MI and are also associated with myocardial no-reflow in STEMI patients . Ventricular wall rupture is a fatal complication of acute MI and platelets seem to be involved in this phenomenon since an intramural thrombus was observed within the infarcted myocardium . Platelets potential involvement in this process was confirmed by their depletion which reduced the rate of myocardial wall rupture from 46 to 0% . Several studies investigated platelet mechanisms involved in MI and in myocardial injury.
Table 3. A comprehensive analysis of platelet mechanisms in myocardial infarction mouse model and in MI patients .
Causes Of High Platelet Count In Children
A high platelet count, also known as thrombocytosis, indicates the existence of an increase in the amount of thrombocytes or platelets in the blood. It is a component of the blood that helps with blood clotting in response to injury. An increase in platelet count is not an unusual occurrence in young children.
A normal platelet level ranges between 150,000 to 450,000 for every microliter of blood.
Undergoing medical procedures and specific tests for platelets help in the diagnosis of possible blood platelet disorders along with any abnormal health changes, especially with associated factors like bone marrow functionality.
Unless there are other accompanying factors that may be of concern, it really isnt necessary for parents to worry much about the display of high platelet count in children. Not unless the condition persists and does not correct by itself. Watch out for these high platelet count symptoms.
- READ MORE
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Platelet Mechanisms In Arterial Thrombosis And Vascular Inflammation
The specificity of GPVI is not restricted to collagen. Laminin as well as fibronectin, present in the basement membrane, have been shown to support platelet adhesion and spreading through 61 and GPVI . The exclusive expression of GPVI on platelets makes it an attractive target. A recent placebo-controlled phase 1 study evaluated the safety and tolerability of a humanized Fab anti GPVI in healthy donors. This study reported no bleeding events or increased of the bleeding time suggesting a promising effect of targeting GPVI in thrombotic diseases . The hemITAM receptor, C-type lectin 2 , may also contribute to platelet activation and thrombus formation in the deeper layers of the ECM. The known ligand for CLEC-2 is podoplanin which is expressed by type-1 alveolar cells, fibrotic reticular cells, lymphatic endothelial cells but not by vascular ECs. While the role of CLEC-2 in arterial thrombosis is still not clear , a recent in vitro study shows that podoplanin-expressing perivascular mesenchymal stromal cells are able to protrude through ECs and activate platelets in a CLEC-2 dependent manner . However, further in vivo studies are needed to support this observation in the context of inflammation or vascular injury.
How Is A High Red Blood Cell Count Treated
If a medical condition is causing a high red blood cell count, your doctor may recommend a procedure or medication to lower it.
In a procedure called a phlebotomy, a health professional inserts a needle into your vein and drains blood through a tube into a bag or container. You might need to have this procedure on a repeated basis until your red blood cell level is close to normal.
If you are diagnosed with the bone marrow disease polycythemia vera, your doctor may also prescribe a medicine called hydroxyurea to slow your bodys production of red blood cells. Youll need to see your doctor regularly while taking hydroxyurea to be sure your red blood cell level does not drop too low.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 05/02/2018.
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How Is Primary Thrombocythemia Diagnosed
Your doctor will first perform a physical examination and ask you about your medical history. Make sure to mention any blood transfusions, infections, and medical procedures youve had in the past. Also tell your doctor about any prescription and over-the-counter medications and supplements youre taking.
If primary thrombocythemia is suspected, your doctor will run certain blood tests to confirm the diagnosis. Blood tests may include:
- Complete blood count . A CBC measures the number of platelets in your blood.
- Blood smear. A blood smear examines the condition of your platelets.
- Genetic testing. This test will help determine whether you have an inherited condition that causes a high platelet count.
Other diagnostic testing may include bone marrow aspiration to examine your platelets under a microscope. This procedure involves taking a sample of bone marrow tissue in liquid form. Its typically extracted from the breastbone or pelvis.
Youll most likely receive a diagnosis of primary thrombocythemia if your doctor cant find a cause for your high platelet count.
Increased Platelet Cholesterol And Decreased Percentage Volume Of Platelets As A Secondary Risk Factor For Coronary Artery Disease
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Cholesterol Levels In Dialysis Patients
In a study of dialysis patients, those with higher cholesterol levels had lower mortality than those with low cholesterol.51 Yet the authors claimed that the inverse association of total cholesterol level with mortality in dialysis patients is likely due to the cholesterol-lowering effect of systemic inflammation and malnutrition, not to a protective effect of high cholesterol concentrations. Keeping an eye on further funding opportunities, the authors concluded: These findings support treatment of hypercholesterolemia in this population.
High Cholesterol Doubles Your Rate Of Heart Disease And Stroke But Did You Know That High Blood Calcium Is Far More Dangerous Than High Cholesterol Hyperparathyroidism Caries Many Significant Health Risks
High blood calcium levels are almost never normal and increases the chances of developing a number of other health problems and even early death if ignored. For adults over 35 years of age, this means we should not have blood calcium higher than 10.0 mg/dl . High blood calcium due to hyperparathyroidism occurs in 1% of women over 50, and one in 200 men, yet a lot of doctors aren’t paying attention to this problem. High blood cholesterol, on the other hand, is much more common . We have all known for many years that we need to keep our cholesterol into the normal range, and for many of us that means taking a “statin” type of drug. Why does everybody know about the risks of high cholesterol while the risks of high calcium are often ignored even though high calcium is considerably more dangerous? Could it be that the big drug companies have educated us about high cholesterol, but since there is no drug for high calcium nobody has bothered to teach us? Well, let’s learn this today, and then let’s print the references at the bottom of this parathyroid blog and teach our doctors!
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What Are The Causes Of High Cholesterol And Liver Enzymes
Your liver, one of the largest organs in your body, stores energy and nutrients, makes proteins and enzymes, breaks down and removes harmful substances and produces cholesterol. Doctors monitor liver function by determining the level of three important liver enzymes: gammaglutamyltransferase, or GGT, aspartate aminotransferase, or AST, and alanine aminotransferase, or ALT. Several medical conditions that can cause high cholesterol can also cause high liver enzymes.
If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately.
Some Less Common Conditions
We have two kidneys, and they’re responsible for cleaning our blood by filtering out waste products which are then removed from the body as urine.
Chronic Kidney Disease . This is the name for a gradual decline in kidney function. People with CKD often have abnormal blood fats raised LDL cholesterol and triglycerides, and lower HDL cholesterol. Heart and blood vessel diseases are common in people with CKD so statins and other cholesterol-lowering treatments are recommended if you have CKD.
Nephrotic syndrome. This happens when our kidneys become leaky. It results in protein leaking into the urine. People with nephrotic syndrome often have raised levels of cholesterol and triglycerides too.
The liver is a very important organ. It is where cholesterol and triglycerides are processed, made or broken down. Bile, a breakdown product of cholesterol, is made in the liver, stored in the gall bladder and released into the gut when we eat a meal. Its role is to help break down fat from food into small drops which can then be easily digested.
Sometimes the production of bile or its release into the gut can become blocked, for example, if gall stones develop from crystallised cholesterol. Symptoms include pain, especially after a fatty meal. The medical name for this is cholestasis, where bile is unable to flow from the liver, and it can cause blood cholesterol levels in the blood to rise.
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What Causes A High Red Blood Cell Count
A high red blood cell count may be a symptom of a disease or disorder, although it doesnt always indicate a health problem. Health or lifestyle factors can cause a high red blood cell count.
Medical conditions that can cause an increase in red blood cells include:
- Heart failure, causing low blood oxygen levels
- Lung disease, such as emphysema, COPD, pulmonary fibrosis
- Carbon monoxide exposure
Lifestyle factors that can cause a high red blood cell count include:
- Living at a high altitude
- Taking performance-enhancing drugs such as anabolic steroids or erythropoietin