Why Is Too Much Cholesterol In The Blood Bad
Too much cholesterol can build up in your blood vessels. This build-up can narrow vessels and lead to a blockage, preventing blood from getting to certain parts of your body. When this happens in your heart vessels, it is called coronary heart disease and can cause a heart attack. In people with chronic kidney disease , heart disease is very common, and is the number one cause of death in this group. It is suggested that people with CKD have their cholesterol tested every year. Your doctor may want to do them more often if something has changed with your health.
Ways To Lower Your Cholesterol
The best ways to lower your cholesterol are through diet and exercise. A heart-healthy diet high in fiber and nutrient-rich foods, such as fruits and vegetables, can lower cholesterol levels significantly. Salt and alcohol should be minimized, and processed foods high in trans fats should be avoided. Fish high in omega-3 fatty acids may help raise your HDL levels. This diet ensures that less trans fat, which causes LDL, enters your bloodstream.
Exercise has many benefits, including lowering your cholesterol by allowing the liver to remove waste from your blood. This also minimizes the amount of trans fat and artery-clogging substances that can build up.
Some people with a genetic or familial predisposition to high cholesterol may need to take medication to lower their levels.
For more information on outpatient medical care, contact BASS Medical Group at 350-4044.
What Is High Blood Pressure
Your heart pumps blood through tubes called your arteries and veins. This causes pressure inside of these tubes, which is called blood pressure. Checking your blood pressure tells you how hard your heart is working to pump your blood.
Blood pressure that is too high means your heart is working too hard to pump your blood. This can harm your body, including your kidneys.
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What Is Kidney Disease
Most people are born with two kidneys. Healthy kidneys function to keep the right levels of water and minerals in your blood by removing waste from your blood after digestion, exposure to chemicals, and muscle activity. Kidneys also make other chemicals your body needs, like renin, which helps manage blood pressure, and erythropoietin, which makes red blood cells. Kidneys make an active form of vitamin D as well.
Kidney disease is also known as renal failure. The main causes of renal failure are urine backed up in the kidneys, damage to the kidneys, and insufficient blood flow to the kidneys.
Kidney disease may cause dehydration, fatigue, itchy or dry skin, bloody or foamy urine, and hypertension. Acute kidney infection leads to sepsis, a severe infection that causes the organs in the body to shut down. The kidneys are among the first organs affected. Septic shock can manifest as confusion, shortness of breath, seizures, or a coma.
Understanding The Link Between High Cholesterol And Kidney Disease
Edited by: Laura Burgess
It has been known for a very long time that people with chronic kidney disease have a much higher than normal incidence of cardiovascular diseases, such as strokes and heart attacks. Weve asked consultant nephrologist Dr Christopher Lawrence to explain just when the link between high cholesterol and renal disease was first discovered and how the conditions relate to one another.
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Why Is Cholesterol Important
Too much cholesterol can build up in your blood vessels. This build up can narrow the vessels and lead to a blockage, preventing blood from getting to a certain area of your body. When this occurs in your heart vessels, it is called coronary heart disease and can cause a heart attack or stroke.
In people with chronic kidney disease , heart and blood vessel disease is very common. It is suggested that people with CKD have cholesterol labs drawn at least yearly. Your doctor may want to do them more frequently if something has changed with your health.
Five Risks To Ignoring Your High Cholesterol
High cholesterol is often referred to as the other silent killer. This is because the first silent killer high blood pressure and this one high cholesterol can have no symptoms. If high cholesterol is left unchecked, you may be able to go about your life feeling fine until your health is in serious jeopardy. Here are five reasons why you should never ignore your high cholesterol:
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Can Dehydration Skew A Cbc Test
Possibly. A complete blood count test evaluates the overall health of the blood cells circulating in the body. Hematocrit is one component of the CBC test that can be skewed as a result of dehydration. This test measures the proportion of blood that is made up of red blood cells as the volume of fluid in the blood drops, the proportion of RBCs rises.
Humans get about 20% of the water we need to sustain our bodies from the foods we eat, so fasting can increase the risk of dehydration. If your doctor recommends fasting before a blood test, be sure to drink enough water leading up to the test to help ensure accurate results.
What Is A Healthy Blood Cholesterol Level
For people who have plaque in their arteries or who have other factors that put them at risk for cardiovascular disease, doctors recommend an ideal LDL level well below 70 mg/dl. For those without risk factors who have an LDL level at or above 190 mg/dl, the recommendation is to get this level down to below 100 mg/dl. People age 40 to 75 who are living with diabetes and whose LDL is at 70 or above may need medication.
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The Link Between Thyroid Disease And Cholesterol
Thyroid disease and cholesterol levels are closely related.
Interactions between these conditions include:
- High cholesterol is linked to hypothyroidism .
- A sudden drop in cholesterol can occur with hyperthyroidism .
- Treating thyroid disease can correct cholesterol levels.
- Cholesterol drugs can affect thyroid disease and its treatments.
This article explains why thyroid disease and high cholesterol are linked, the potential problems, and how to manage both conditions at once.
Keep Your Cholesterol Down
High cholesterol levels are often associated with heart disease, the number one killer in many Western countries. But did you know that cholesterol levels can also affect the kidneys?
The kidneys rely on a steady supply of blood to function correctly. The organs are surrounded by dozens of tiny blood vessels supplying them with nutrients. High cholesterol levels can leads to plaque build-ups in these blood vessels, causing damage to the surrounding tissue, and potentially reducing the ability of the organ to function. Not good.
The average person has cholesterol levels somewhere between 200 and 220 mg/dL. Your doctor might tell you that this is normal, but remember, thats only normal in the context of a Western population many people will still go on to develop problems with their cardiovascular systems even with average cholesterol levels. To be kidney-safe, total cholesterol should be kept below 150 mg/dL, something that is easily achievable for most people on a plant-based diet.
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What Are Clinical Trials For High Blood Pressure And Kidney Disease
Clinical trialsand other types of clinical studiesare part of medical research and involve people like you. When you volunteer to take part in a clinical study, you help doctors and researchers learn more about disease and improve health care for people in the future.
Researchers are studying many aspects of high blood pressure and kidney disease, such as
- managing high blood pressure through diet, education, and counseling in patients with kidney disease
- testing new medications to treat high blood pressure and kidney disease
Treating High Cholesterol And Liver Damage
In order to treat a liver problem, doctors will first have to identify the underlying condition thats causing it. Liver problems that are due to high cholesterol are actually some of the easiest ones to treat, provided the liver has yet to suffer irreparable damage.
The best thing to do is to avoid eating foods that are rich in fats and cholesterol, in order to prevent adding high levels of cholesterol into a body that can already make its own. In order to prevent raising cholesterol levels, a diet rich in fibers, lean meat, fish, brands, nuts, healthy oils, and whole grains is super important.
If you observe all the dietary recommendations given to people with high cholesterol, you will notice that they will also help those who have a liver disease: avoiding alcohol consumption, eating a lot of protein-rich foods, but also getting enough exercise.
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How Can I Protect My Kidneys From High Blood Pressure
Hdl In Ckd: Loss Of Cardioprotective Properties
Under normal circumstances, circulating HDL acts to protect against atherosclerosis through reverse cholesterol transport. It also has anti-inflammatory and anti-coagulant properties . Further, HDL behaves as an anti-oxidant by removing oxidant molecules from the arterial wall, thus limiting oxidative modification of LDL and reducing exposure of macrophages to oxidized lipids . Elevated HDL is generally believed to protect from atherosclerosis . However, drugs or genetic polymorphisms that increase HDL fail to decrease cardiovascular events and it is now recognized that the relationship between HDL and atherosclerosis is complex . HDL quality may be a more accurate indicator of cardiovascular risk than plasma concentration , and improperly functioning HDL may not be atheroprotective .
Changes in HDL functions mediated by CKD
Small dense HDL particles dominate in individuals with CKD. Chronic pro-inflammatory conditions activate macrophages, releasing myeloperoxidase . MPO-derived oxidants modify HDL, which impairs the functioning of HDL-associated enzymes, such as paraoxonase 1 , nitric oxide synthase and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase . These enzymes are essential for anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and vasoprotective properties of unmodified HDL.
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What Are The Signs That Something Is Wrong With Your Kidneys
Lipids As Progression Promoters
Studies in a variety of animal models have shown that hypercholesterolemia accelerates the rate of progression of kidney disease . A high-fat diet causes macrophage infiltration and foam cell formation in rats, leading to glomerulosclerosis .
In humans more than a decade ago, a relationship between serum cholesterol levels and GFR decline was shown in 31 patients with type 1 diabetes and established overt nephropathy . In those with a total cholesterol level > 7 mmol/L, the rate of decline in GFR was at least three times higher than in those with a level < 7 mmol/L. The power of serum cholesterol levels in predicting the progression of diabetic nephropathy in type 1 diabetes was confirmed by a Danish group in a study of 301 patients who had diabetes and overt nephropathy and were followed up for 7 yr .
A similar finding also was found in patients with type 2 diabetes and overt nephropathy. A post hoc analysis of the Reduction of Endpoints in NIDDM with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan study showed in a large group of patients with type 2 diabetes that both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol measured at baseline were independent risk factors for ESRD .
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Can Blood Pressure Tablets Affect Your Kidneys
The effects of digestion. In addition to treating high blood pressure, these medicines are also known as water pills and are used to treat swelling in the body. Your body gets rid of extra fluid when you use them. It can sometimes dehydrate you, which can be bad for your kidneys if you drink too much of them.
What Is High Cholesterol
Lipoproteins are particles that help cholesterol circulate throughout the body. There are two types of lipoproteins. High-density lipoproteins are known as âgood cholesterol.â So-called âbad cholesterolâ refers to low-density lipoproteins . Not enough HDL or too much LDL can make fatty deposits build up in your arteries.
When people refer to âbad cholesterolâ or âhigh cholesterol,â they are technically referring to the levels of low-density lipoproteins in your body, not the cholesterol itself.
High cholesterol levels are widely known for being a risk factor for heart disease. But they can be one of many kidney disease symptoms as well.
Letâs take a look at what kidney disease is and its connection to high cholesterol.
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The Liver And Cholesterol: What You Should Know
Introduction and overview
Balanced cholesterol levels are important to maintaining good health. The liver is an underrecognized part of that effort.
The liver is the largest gland in the body, located in the upper right part of the belly. It is the bodys master detoxer of drugs and other foreign substances. It stores glycogen, which the body uses for energy. Its also important in metabolizing fat, carbohydrates, and proteins. A healthy liver does all this unnoticed.
An important function of the liver is to produce and clear cholesterol in the body. Most of the attention focused on cholesterol describes its potential for harmful health effects. But cholesterol is necessary for the creation of hormones, vitamin D, and enzymes needed for digestion.
Bundles called lipoproteins carry cholesterol throughout the body. Two important types are high-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins . High and low refer to the relative proportion of protein to fat in the bundle. The body needs both types in regulated proportions.
Its important to know the levels of HDL , LDL , and total cholesterol in your body. A rough estimate of total cholesterol is HDL, plus LDL, plus one-fifth of a third type of fat called triglyceride.
The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommends the following levels:
|LDL cholesterol levels|
Getting A Cholesterol Test
A blood sample is taken that will be used to determine the amount of bad cholesterol , good cholesterol and other fatty substances in your blood.
You may be asked not to eat for 10-12 hours before the cholesterol test, usually including when you’re asleep at night. This ensures that all food is completely digested and won’t affect the outcome of the test.
Your GP or practice nurse can carry out the cholesterol test and will take a blood sample, either using a needle and a syringe or by pricking your finger.
A newer type of test that measures non-high-density lipoprotein is now sometimes used because it’s thought to be a more accurate way of estimating cardiovascular disease risk than LDL.
Non-HDL cholesterol is total cholesterol minus HDL cholesterol. It’s also not necessary to fast before the test, so it is more convenient.
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Whats The Role Of Statins In Lowering Cholesterol
In the general population, cholesterol-lowering therapy with statins is thought to provide benefit in two ways. Firstly, conferring nearly immediate benefit by stabilising cholesterol plaques and making them less likely to rupture . Secondly, by lowering cholesterol with time and therefore reducing the deposition of cholesterol plaques in the coronary arteries.In the 1990s statins were shown to be effective at primary prevention, such as preventing heart attacks in people at risk of a heart attack but who had not yet had a heart attack.3 They also proved to be effective in secondary prevention, 4 preventing further heart attacks in people who had already experienced one heart attack.
What Are The Risk Factors For Cardiovascular
Whilst there is statistically robust evidence from the SHARP study that cholesterol-lowering can benefit many people with kidney disease preventing vascular events, it is worth remembering that age, being diabetic and being a current smoker are all more important risk factors than cholesterol for cardiovascular disease.
Do not hesitate to book an appointment with Dr Lawrence for a first consultation.
1Foley RN, Parfrey PS, Sarnak MJ. Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 32[Suppl 3}:S115,1998
2 Kumar N et al. Effect of elective coronary angiography on glomerular filtration rate in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 4:1907-1913.
3 Pedersen TR for the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. Randomised trial of cholesterol lowering in 4444 patients with coronary heart disease: the Scandinavian Simvastatin Survival Study Group. The Lancet 344:1383-1389.
4 Sacks FM et al. The effect of pravastatin on coronary events after myocardial infarction in patients with average cholesterol levels. NEJM 335:1001-1009.
5 Baigent C et al. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease : a randomised placebo-controlled trial. The Lancet 377:2181-2192.
Normal Physiology Of Lipoproteins
Before discussing lipoprotein abnormalities in CKD, a brief explanation of normal lipoprotein physiology is necessary. Lipoproteins are macromolecular particles composed of characteristic lipids and proteins that serve to transport the otherwise insoluble triglycerides and cholesterol molecules. Lipoproteins consist of a coat composed of a monolayer of amphipathic lipids and apolipoproteins that surround a core composed of hydrophobic lipids. Since they both have hydrophobic and hydrophilic parts, they can interact with both the aqueous environment of the plasma and the hydrophobic core lipids. Circulating lipoproteins range in size from 5 to > 1,000 nm, and can be separated according to density. HDL are small, containing the least lipid and the most protein, whereas chylomicrons are large and lipid-rich. Lipoproteins are also distinguished by their apolipoprotein contents. Lipoproteins have mainly 2 major functions: One is the delivery of cholesterol and triglyceride molecules from the liver and intestine to muscle and fat tissue via mainly very low-density lipoprotein particles that contain apoB48 and apoB100 or LDL particles. The other function is to assist the transport of excess cholesterol from extrahepatic tissues to the liver for elimination via the bile, which is mediated primarily by HDL particles .