Ptdss1 Cdna Restores Transport Of Ldl
To further study the role of PTDSS1 in cholesterol transport, we created a clonal line of PTDSS1-deficient CHO-K1 cells using CRISPR-Cas9 technology. The sgRNAs flank exon 4, whose deletion results in a frameshift with a premature stop codon corresponding to amino acid 124, as determined by DNA sequencing of the surrounding genomic DNA. The truncated protein lacks the region required for catalytic activity . These PTDSS1/ cells were then compared with NPC1/ cells created with the same CRISPR technology . After preincubation in cholesterol-depleting medium, the PTDSS1/ and NPC1/ cells degraded comparable amounts of 125I-LDL to that degraded by WT cells . However, when the PTDSS1/ cells and NPC/ cells were depleted of cholesterol and then incubated for 6 h with fetal calf serum containing LDL, there was no significant inhibition of SREBP cleavage and no increase in cholesterol esterification , indicating that both cell lines had blocks in the delivery of LDL-derived cholesterol to the ER.
What Complications Are Possible If You Dont Treat High Cholesterol Levels In Your Blood
The main reason to treat high cholesterol is to prevent or treat coronary heart disease , also called coronary artery disease or CAD. CHD happens when heart is not able to get enough oxygen-rich blood to function well and kills more people in the U.S. than any other cause of death. CHD usually refers to the large arteries, but there is also a condition called coronary microvascular disease that affects the small vessels and causes damage.
What Is High Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a fatty molecule that your cells need to function. Your liver makes it, but you can also get cholesterol from the foods you eat.
The term high cholesterol usually refers to the amount of cholesterol being carried in the blood by low-density lipoprotein, or LDL . High-density lipoprotein, or HDL, cholesterol increases your risk of atherosclerosis, where deposits of cholesterol, calcium and white blood cells produce plaques in the walls of arteries. These plaques can reduce blood flow to vital organs like the heart and brain, and produce serious complications like heart attack and stroke.
There can be many reasons why your cholesterol is high:
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What Is Cholesterol And How Does Arteriosclerosis Develop
The human body needs cholesterol to work properly. For example, cholesterol is needed to make certain hormones and it is an important building block for cell walls. But too much cholesterol in the blood can sometimes mean an increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
Cholesterol is needed by every cell in the human body. Most of it is made in the liver. Only a small proportion comes from our diet. The bloodstream transports cholesterol from the liver to the other organs and tissues in the body. Spare cholesterol is carried back to the liver in the bloodstream.
Although cholesterol is often referred to as a blood fat, chemically speaking that is not quite correct. But, like fats, cholesterol does not dissolve in water , so our bodies need a special system to transport it. Cholesterol is packed into tiny parcels in the liver. The parcels are made up of cholesterol, proteins, fats and other things in our blood. They can be transported through our bodies in the bloodstream. Because they are mainly made up of lipids and proteins, the parcels are called lipoproteins. There are two different kinds of lipoproteins, which differ in how densely they are packed:
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Symptoms Of High Cholesterol
Often, there are no specific symptoms of high cholesterol. You could have high cholesterol and not know it.
If you have high cholesterol, your body may store the extra cholesterol in your arteries. These are blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to the rest of your body. A buildup of cholesterol in your arteries is known as plaque. Over time, plaque can become hard and make your arteries narrow. Large deposits of plaque can completely block an artery. Cholesterol plaques can also break apart, leading to formation of a blood clot that blocks the flow of blood.
A blocked artery to the heart can cause a heart attack. A blocked artery to your brain can cause a stroke.
Many people dont discover that they have high cholesterol until they suffer one of these life-threatening events. Some people find out through routine check-ups that include blood tests.
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Hdl: The Good But Complex Cholesterol
More HDL cholesterol is better, but the benefits may depend on how you get there.
In the simplest telling of the cholesterol story, HDL fights LDL . Like knights in shining armor, HDL particles patrol the blood vessels, snatching cholesterol from circulating LDL particles and from the dangerous, gooey plaque that lines artery walls. The knights of the HDL cholesterol carry their fatty cargo to the liver for recycling or disposal.
The real story isnât quite so simple. HDL cholesterol is turning out to be a much more complex substance than we once believed. Instead of a single kind of particle, HDL cholesterol is a family of different particles. Although they all contain lipids , cholesterol, and proteins called apolipoproteins, some types are spherical while others are doughnut-shaped. Some types of HDL are great at plucking cholesterol from LDL and artery walls while other types are indifferent to cholesterol, and some even transfer cholesterol the wrong way into LDL and cells.
To further complicate matters, different HDL types do more than just carry cholesterol. Some protect LDL from being chemically altered by oxygen, a change that makes LDL extra harmful to artery walls. Under some circumstances, though, they can do just the opposite. Various HDL particles can ease inflammation in artery walls, stimulate production of nitric oxide, a molecule that helps artery walls relax, and help prevent blood clots from forming inside arteries.
What Can Raise My Risk Of High Cholesterol
A variety of things can raise your risk for high cholesterol:
- Age. Your cholesterol levels tend to rise as you get older. Even though it is less common, younger people, including children and teens, can also have high cholesterol.
- Heredity. High blood cholesterol can run in families.
- Weight. Being overweight or having obesity raises your cholesterol level.
- Race. Certain races may have an increased risk of high cholesterol. For example, African Americans typically have higher HDL and LDL cholesterol levels than whites.
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What Are Some Causes Of High Cholesterol
As we mentioned above, cholesterol is carried through your blood attached to proteins. Factors impacting your overall cholesterol levels which are within your control include inactivity, obesity and a poor diet all of which contribute to high LDL and low HDL cholesterol. Factors beyond your control may also play a role in high cholesterol. Your family genetics may play a role in preventing cells from removing LDL cholesterol from your blood efficiently or cause your liver to produce too much cholesterol.
Knowing your cholesterol levels helps your doctor determine your risk for having a heart attack or a stroke. However, it isnt cholesterol alone that elevates risk. Your doctor uses your cholesterol levels plus other factors to calculate your risk: your blood pressure, whether or not you have diabetes, your age, sex, race and whether or not you smoke.
Lack of exercise is another cause of high cholesterol. Exercise helps boost your bodys HDL, or good cholesterol while increasing the size of the particles that make up your LDL, or bad cholesterol, making them less harmful.
You Need A Little Not A Lot
Cholesterol is in every cell in your body. You need cholesterol to help your brain, skin, and other organs do their jobs. But eating too much fat and cholesterol is a bad idea.
Cholesterol floats around in your blood and can get into the walls of the blood vessels. This can cause the blood vessels to get stiffer, narrower, or clogged. If the clogging gets worse over many years, it can cause a heart attack or stroke in adults.
Cholesterol can start to build up in childhood. Doctors can find out what your cholesterol level is by taking a little of your blood and testing it.
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Cholesterol And Coronary Heart Disease
The main risk from high cholesterol is coronary heart disease, which can lead to death from a heart attack. If your cholesterol level is too high, cholesterol can build up in the walls of your arteries. Over time, this buildup Ã¢ called plaque Ã¢ causes hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis. Arteries that feed the heart can narrow in certain areas and slow blood flow to part of the heart muscle. Or cholesterol plaques break off and float to smaller blood vessels and cause a partial or total blockage. Sometimes inflammatory cells might go to the broken plaque area and cause a narrowing there as well. Reduced blood flow can result in chest pain called angina, or in a heart attack if a blood vessel gets blocked completely.Ã
What Should My Cholesterol Levels Be
Blood cholesterol is measured in units called millimoles per litre of blood, often shortened to mmol/L.
As a general guide, total cholesterol levels should be:
- 5mmol/L or less for healthy adults
- 4mmol/L or less for those at high risk
As a general guide, LDL levels should be:
- 3mmol/L or less for healthy adults
- 2mmol/L or less for those at high risk
An ideal level of HDL is above 1mmol/L. A lower level of HDL can increase your risk of heart disease.
Your ratio of total cholesterol to HDL may also be calculated. This is your total cholesterol level divided by your HDL level. Generally, this ratio should be below four, as a higher ratio increases your risk of heart disease.
Cholesterol is only one risk factor. The level at which specific treatment is required will depend on whether other risk factors, such as smoking and high blood pressure, are also present.
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How Can You Prevent High Cholesterol Levels And Coronary Heart Disease
Prevention methods are very much the same as treatment methods. First, dont smoke. If you do smoke, make plans to quit now. Find ways to add physical activity to each of your days. Take steps to keep your weight in a healthy range. Eat well. Consider following the Mediterranean diet. It is the only diet proven to reduce the risk of heart disease. Take care of any other medical conditions you might have by following your healthcare providers advice and instructions. Learn to really relax and calm down.
Take The First Step To Find Out If You Have High Cholesterol Now
A qualified healthcare provider, such as those at our Chandler family practice, will guide you through every step necessary to take control of your high cholesterol, bring your numbers down to a normal level and create a plan for maintaining low cholesterol in the future.
If you are in the Chandler, Tempe, Mesa, Phoenix or Gilbert area of Arizona, we encourage you to schedule a visit with one of our providers. You can call 480.831.8457 to speak with our scheduling department.
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Signs And Symptoms Of High Cholesterol
High cholesterol on its own doesn’t usually cause symptoms. People often don’t realize they have high cholesterol until they get tested. However, the complications that high cholesterol causes do. As arteries and other blood vessels narrow and blood flow is slowed or stopped, every part of your body can be affected.
Uncontrolled high cholesterol can lead to the following complications:
- Atherosclerosis, which is a buildup of fatty deposits in your blood vessels
- Carotid artery disease, which is narrowing of the blood vessels in the neck that carry blood from the heart to the brain
- Coronary heart disease, which is damage or disease in the heart’s major blood vessels
- Heart attack
- Peripheral artery disease, which is narrowing or blockage of the vessels that carry blood from the heart to the legs
Symptoms of these complications can include:
- Fatty deposits of cholesterol visible from under the skin called xanthelasmas
Is Medication Always Needed To Reduce Cholesterol
Many non-medical options are available to help you reduce your cholesterol.
“The best defense against high cholesterol levels is following a healthy lifestyle, knowing your numbers and discussing them with your health care provider,” Dr. Kovacich said. “Desired LDL levels are based on your risk of a cardiovascular event, so recommendations and intensity of therapy differ between patients.”
Non-medical measures to reduce blood fats include:
If these measures are not effective, your physician may prescribe drug therapy to reduce your cholesterol levels.
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Effects Of High Cholesterol Levels
The liver is the main processing centre for cholesterol and dietary fat. When we eat animal fats, the liver transports the fat, together with cholesterol in the form of lipoproteins, into our bloodstream.
Too much cholesterol circulating within LDL in our bloodstream leads to fatty deposits developing in the arteries. This causes the vessels to narrow and they can eventually become blocked. This can lead to heart disease and stroke.
When Should My Cholesterol Levels Be Tested
Your GP may recommend that you have your blood cholesterol levels tested if you:
- have been diagnosed with coronary heart disease, stroke or mini stroke , or peripheral arterial disease
- have a family history of early cardiovascular disease
- have a close family member who has a cholesterol-related condition
- are overweight
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What You Can Do To Lose Weight
Go low-fat: Stay away from saturated fats, which are found in red meat, and trans fats , found in margarine and baked goods. Check the labels of dairy products, too.
Watch your portions: One-quarter of your plate at meals should be filled with lean protein, and another quarter should be a multigrain starch . The remaining half should be non-starchy vegetables .
Get active: As little as 20 minutes of exercise three times a week is all it takes. Start slow and build up to 30 minutes five times a week. Walking is a good way to get moving.
You should also:
Cut down on alcohol: If you drink, keep it to two per day for men or one per day for women.
Stop smoking: Sometimes when people quit smoking, they gain a few pounds. Donât let the fear of that stop you. Smoking lowers your HDL levels. Even being exposed to secondhand smoke can be bad for your cholesterol level. Youâll be healthier overall if you quit.
What Do My Cholesterol Numbers Mean
At Warner Family Practice, you will schedule two visits to check your cholesterol one for a blood draw and a second to go over your results with a provider. During your provider appointment, you will be given several cholesterol numbers, including HDL, LDL and total cholesterol, as well as your triglycerides.
The total number is a composite of different types of cholesterol. Your total cholesterol number is calculated by adding the HDL and LDL cholesterol levels and 20 percent of the triglyceride level. Triglycerides are another type of fat in your bloodstream. Normal triglyceride levels vary by age and sex. People with high triglycerides often have a high total cholesterol level, including high LDL and low HDL cholesterol levels.
So, what are your optimal numbers? Your total cholesterol should be below 200 mg/dL. As mentioned earlier, your HDL should be 60 mg/dL and above. Your LDL should be below 100 mg/dL and your triglycerides should be below 100 mg/dL.
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How Can Medications Help Cholesterol Levels
Lifestyle changes can make a difference in cholesterol levels, but many people need medications to bring cholesterol completely under control. Drugs are especially important if you have other risk factors for heart disease, such as diabetes, or if you already have heart trouble.
The most effective cholesterol medications available today belong to a group of drugs called statins. These drugs can dramatically lower cholesterol levels and have few side effects, although some patients complain of constipation, stomach pains, and cramps. In rare cases, a patient may develop significant muscle pain and weakness. A recent study of heart patients found that one statin drug cut the relative risk of heart attacks by more than 60 percent.
HealthDay News contributed information to this article.
How Does Cholesterol Leave The Body
. Also know, do you poop out cholesterol?
As it travels, soluble fiber absorbs bile, a substance produced by your liver to help digest fats. Eventually, both the fiber and attached bile are excreted in your stool. Your body pulls cholesterol from the bloodstream to make more bile, therefore reducing levels.
Beside above, what reduces cholesterol quickly? How To Reduce Cholesterol Quickly
- Focus on fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and beans.
- Be mindful of fat intake.
- Eat more plant sources of protein.
- Eat fewer refined grains, such as white flour.
- Get moving.
Besides, how long does it take for cholesterol to leave your system?
The right healthy lifestyle, in and of itself, can produce dramatic reductions in cholesterol, and in just two to three weeks.
What are the symptoms of high cholesterol in the body?
Ask about being tested for high cholesterol. You develop symptoms of heart disease, stroke, or atherosclerosis in other blood vessels, such as left-sided chest pain, pressure, or fullness dizziness unsteady gait slurred speech or pain in the lower legs.
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