What Can Raise Your Triglycerides
Triglycerides can be raised due to what doctors refer to as ‘primary’ and ‘secondary’ causes, explained below. Some people have a combination of both.
It is very important that your doctors investigates all these potential causes so that you can start treatment.
Primary causes of raised triglycerides
‘Primary’ refers to inherited conditions which cause raised triglyceride levels.
Platelets Contribute To Myocardial Injury
Indeed, the atherosclerotic origin of MI led to numerous studies deciphering the platelet involvement in MI. A lower platelet count or no significant difference of the platelet count was observed between MI patients and stable angina or healthy donors . However, the mean platelet volume reflecting platelet activation was higher in MI patients compared to stable coronary artery disease patients at the time of acute event . Increased levels of P-Selectin and CD63-exposing platelet microparticles have been found in MI patients . Plasma levels of vWF and serotonin are increased in patients with coronary artery syndrome highlighting the role of platelet activation in myocardial injury. Moreover, platelet-leucocyte aggregates are an early marker of acute MI and are also associated with myocardial no-reflow in STEMI patients . Ventricular wall rupture is a fatal complication of acute MI and platelets seem to be involved in this phenomenon since an intramural thrombus was observed within the infarcted myocardium . Platelets potential involvement in this process was confirmed by their depletion which reduced the rate of myocardial wall rupture from 46 to 0% . Several studies investigated platelet mechanisms involved in MI and in myocardial injury.
Table 3. A comprehensive analysis of platelet mechanisms in myocardial infarction mouse model and in MI patients .
How Are High Triglycerides Treated
The best ways to lower triglycerides include losing weight, eating fewer calories, and exercising regularly . Diet changes that may help include avoiding fats and sugar and refined foods . Also avoid alcohol and limit fats found in meats high in saturated fat, egg yolks, and whole milk products. Trans fats, found in fried foods and commercial baked products, are unhealthy. Eat healthy monounsaturated fatsolive, peanut, and canola oils. Eat fish high in omega-3 fatty acids instead of red meat.
If diet changes and exercise dont work, medicines such as nicotinic acid , fibrates , and omega-3 fatty acids can help lower triglycerides. Niacin side effects limit its use. Cholesterol-lowering medications known as statins can also lower triglycerides, but their effect is limited.
Its also important to control diabetes since a high sugar level will also increase triglycerides.
Saturated And Trans Fats
Saturated fats can raise triglyceride levels. They can be found in fried foods, red meat, chicken skin, egg yolks, high-fat dairy, butter, lard, shortening, margarine, and fast food. Alternatives include:
- Lean proteins such as skinless white chicken meat and fish
- Low-fat dairy
- Pastries, pies, cookies, and cakes
Starchy foods can also raise triglycerides. Try to choose foods with 100% whole grains and opt for long-grain rice instead of instant rice. If possible, eat non-starchy vegetables such as spinach, instead of starchy ones like potatoes.
What Are High And Normal Triglyceride Levels
A lipid panel is done to test the blood for levels of triglycerides total cholesterol LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol. This test will require you to fast for about 8 to 12 hours before taking it. The normal and high ranges of triglycerides between the different age groups are:
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Beyond Statins: Managing High Cholesterol And Triglycerides
High cholesterol is an extremely common problem, affecting as many as 93 million people over age 20 in the United States , according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . But because high cholesterol has no symptoms and can only be detected with a blood test, many people may not realize they have it.
High cholesterol and its close cousin high triglycerides another type of fat, or lipid, in your blood can increase your risk for heart disease and stroke, which is a problem because theyre leading causes of death in the U.S., according to the American Heart Association .
Everyone really needs to pay attention, because if they dont have high cholesterol, they probably know someone who does, says Partha Nandi, MD, host of the Dr. Nandi Show and chief health editor of WXYZ-TV ABC Detroit. Whats key is that you have to get your cholesterol checked.
What To Know About Triglycerides
In addition to cholesterol, you might hear about your triglycerides, another kind of fat found in the bloodstream. Women should pay particular attention to this. A high level of triglycerides seems to predict an even greater risk for heart disease in women compared with men, says Michos.
When you take in more calories than you need, your body converts the extra calories into triglycerides, which are then stored in fat cells. Triglycerides are used by the body for energy, but people with excess triglycerides have higher risk of medical problems, including cardiovascular disease. Drinking a lot of alcohol and eating foods containing simple carbohydrates , saturated fats and trans fats contributes to high triglycerides. High levels may also be caused by health conditions such as diabetes, an underactive thyroid, obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or kidney disease.
Triglycerides also circulate in the bloodstream on particles that may contribute to plaque formation. Many people with high triglycerides have other risk factors for atherosclerosis, including high LDL levels or low HDL levels, or abnormal blood sugar levels. Genetic studies have also shown some association between triglycerides and cardiovascular disease.
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How Do Triglycerides Circulate In The Blood
Pure cholesterol cannot mix with or dissolve in the blood. Instead, the liver packages cholesterol with triglycerides and proteins called lipoproteins. The lipoproteins move this fatty mixture to areas throughout the body.
Types of these lipoproteins include very low-density lipoproteins , high-density lipoproteins and low-density lipoproteins .
High Cholesterol Doubles Your Rate Of Heart Disease And Stroke But Did You Know That High Blood Calcium Is Far More Dangerous Than High Cholesterol Hyperparathyroidism Caries Many Significant Health Risks
High blood calcium levels are almost never normal and increases the chances of developing a number of other health problems and even early death if ignored. For adults over 35 years of age, this means we should not have blood calcium higher than 10.0 mg/dl . High blood calcium due to hyperparathyroidism occurs in 1% of women over 50, and one in 200 men, yet a lot of doctors arent paying attention to this problem. High blood cholesterol, on the other hand, is much more common . We have all known for many years that we need to keep our cholesterol into the normal range, and for many of us that means taking a statin type of drug. Why does everybody know about the risks of high cholesterol while the risks of high calcium are often ignored even though high calcium is considerably more dangerous? Could it be that the big drug companies have educated us about high cholesterol, but since there is no drug for high calcium nobody has bothered to teach us? Well, lets learn this today, and then lets print the references at the bottom of this parathyroid blog and teach our doctors!
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What Treatments Are Available For High Cholesterol
Treatment may include:
Addressing risk factors. Some risk factors that can be changed include lack of exercise and poor eating habits.
Cholesterol-lowering medicines. Medicines are used to lower fats in the blood, particularly LDL cholesterol. Statins are a group of medicines that can do this. The two most effective types are atorvastatin and rosuvastatin. Other medicines that lower cholesterol levels are ezetimibe and PCSK9 inhibitors.
Normal Cholesterol With High Triglycerides What Is That
When measuring total cholesterol levels, low-density lipoprotein , high-density lipoprotein , and triglycerides are used in the measurement.
For adults, standard cholesterol levels are:
- Less than 200 mg/dL is desirable
- Between 200 239 mg/dL is considered borderline
- Over 240 mg/dL is considered high
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Good And Bad Cholesterol
You will often hear doctors and dietitians talk about two different types of cholesterol low-density lipoprotein cholesterol , and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol . This way of talking about cholesterol is a convenient shorthand, but strictly speaking, it is not really correct.
Strictly speaking, as any good chemist will tell you, cholesterol is just cholesterol. One molecule of cholesterol is pretty much the same as another. So why do doctors talk about good and bad cholesterol?
The answer has to do with lipoproteins.
Lipoproteins. Cholesterol are lipids, and therefore do not dissolve in a water medium like blood. In order for lipids to be transported in the bloodstream without clumping together, they need to be packaged into small particles called lipoproteins. Lipoproteins are soluble in blood, and allow cholesterol and triglycerides to be moved with ease through the bloodstream.
The behavior of the various lipoproteins is determined by the specific kinds of proteins that appear on their surface. Lipoprotein metabolism is quite complex, and scientists are still working out all the details. However, most doctors concern themselves with two major types of lipoproteins: LDL and HDL.
LDL Cholesterol Bad Cholesterol. In most people, the majority of the cholesterol in the blood is packaged in LDL particles. LDL cholesterol is often called bad cholesterol.
How Do Triglycerides Get Into The Blood
When we eat foods containing triglycerides, such as meat, dairy products, cooking oils and fats, they are absorbed by our intestines and packaged into parcels of fats and protein called chylomicrons . These carry the triglycerides in the blood stream to our tissues to be used for energy straight away, or stored for later.
The body also makes its own supply of triglycerides in the liver. This form is carried in a different type of lipoprotein known as VLDL cholesterol.
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What Are The Causes Of High Cholesterol And Liver Enzymes
Your liver, one of the largest organs in your body, stores energy and nutrients, makes proteins and enzymes, breaks down and removes harmful substances and produces cholesterol. Doctors monitor liver function by determining the level of three important liver enzymes: gammaglutamyltransferase, or GGT, aspartate aminotransferase, or AST, and alanine aminotransferase, or ALT. Several medical conditions that can cause high cholesterol can also cause high liver enzymes.
If you are experiencing serious medical symptoms, seek emergency treatment immediately.
What Are The Symptoms Of Primary Thrombocythemia
Primary thrombocythemia usually doesnt cause symptoms. A blood clot may be the first sign that something is wrong. Blood clots can develop anywhere in your body, but theyre more likely to form in your feet, hands, or brain. The symptoms of a blood clot can vary depending on where the clot is located. Symptoms generally include:
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Treatment Of High Triglycerides
In most cases, high triglycerides are managed by making lifestyle changes. You may be advised to:
- Exercise for at least 30 minutes every day.
- Eat less, particularly high fat foods.
- Increase the amount of fibre in your diet.
- Avoid high sugar foods such as lollies. Choose foods with a low glycaemic index such as legumes and wholegrain products.
- Eat more fish. Choose fish rich in omega-3 fatty acids such as salmon, mackerel, tuna and trout. Omega-3 in high doses can reduce triglyceride levels.
- Cut back on alcohol. The kilojoules and sugar in alcoholic drinks can raise triglyceride levels.
- Lose excess body fat using a combination of healthy eating and regular exercise.
- Dont smoke.
- Manage coexisting health conditions such as diabetes or hypertension effectively.
Diagnosis Of High Triglycerides
A blood test can reveal whether or not you have high triglycerides. You may need to have two blood tests for accurate results. Dont eat anything for at least 12 hours before each blood test because food particularly fatty food can temporarily boost triglyceride levels in the blood and skew your test results.Triglycerides are measured in mmol/L. The range includes:
- Very high over 6 mmol/L
- High between2 and 6 mmol/L
- Borderline high between 1.7 and 2 mmol/L
- Normal below 1.7 mmol/L
The doctor may also test your cholesterol levels. In many cases, high triglycerides and high cholesterol go hand in hand. This condition is sometimes known as combined hyperlipidemia.
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When To Seek Medical Advice
A high triglyceride level often does not produce any symptoms, so this condition is usually diagnosed during routine blood tests including a lipid panel.
If the patient does not have any medical conditions or bad lifestyle choices, then the doctor usually orders a lipid panel to be done every few years to assess the triglyceride and cholesterol levels.
If the triglyceride levels are detected above the normal range in the lipid panel, then the doctor will usually recommend lifestyle changes, such as exercise and diet as the first line of treatment for hypertriglyceridemia. If diet and exercise are not effective in lowering the high triglycerides, then medications, such as fibrates or statins are prescribed.
How Often The Triglyceride Level Should Be Tested
According to The American Heart Association, individuals over the age of 20 years should get tested for their triglycerides level about every 4 to 6 years. Testing the levels of triglycerides also depends on your health and can be done more often depending on the doctorâs advice. Children between the ages of 9 and 11 should be checked once and children between the ages of 17 and 21 should also check their triglyceride levels at least once between these ages.
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Role Of Platelets In Early And Late Stages Of Atherosclerosis
Platelet glycoprotein Ib , the ligand-binding subunit of the GPIb-V-IX receptor complex is known to interact with several proteins like vWF, P-selectin, Mac-1 and -thrombin . Injections of anti-GPIb antibodies in 10 weeks old ApoE/ mice reduced both platelet transient and firm adhesion to the vascular surface of the common carotid. Genetic depletion of the GPIb subunit leads to severe thrombocytopenia and reduced atherosclerosis progression with smaller lesion area . This reported protective effect could be a consequence of thrombocytopenia since mice with extracytoplasmic GPIb domain genetic deletion develop milder thrombocytopenia and are not protected against atherosclerosis . It indicates that GPIb binding site for vWF, P-selectin, Mac-1 and -thrombin might be dispensable for atherosclerosis development. This is quite surprising since vWF genetic depletion is protective in an animal model of atherosclerosis . Similarly, a role for Mac1/GPIb interaction has been shown in leukocyte recruitment at sites of vascular inflammation . The subunit GPIb has been also investigated in atherosclerosis by using GPIb//ApoE/ mice fed a chow diet for 30 weeks. Despite the moderate thrombocytopenia of those mice, GPIb was found dispensable in atheroprogression .
Table 1. A comprehensive analysis of platelet mechanisms in atheroprogression in mice .
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What Is A Healthy Blood Cholesterol Level
For people who have plaque in their arteries or who have other factors that put them at risk for cardiovascular disease, doctors recommend an ideal LDL level well below 70 mg/dl. For those without risk factors who have an LDL level at or above 190 mg/dl, the recommendation is to get this level down to below 100 mg/dl. People age 40 to 75 who are living with diabetes and whose LDL is at 70 or above may need medication.
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Causes Of High Triglycerides
A study that looked at 5.6k people who participated in a National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey found that about one-third of US adults had high triglyceride levels .
A similar study of 5.6k people found that only about 2% of adults experienced extremely high levels , the leading cause of pancreas inflammation in the US .
High triglyceride levels can be caused by lifestyle and dietary factors, genetics, and other diseases .
On a mechanistic level, triglycerides will rise too much if :
- Your liver is producing too much triglyceride-dense VLDL cholesterol
- Your diet is excessive and unhealthy
- You have low lipoprotein lipase activity, which is the enzyme that breaks down triglycerides
All the potential causes outlined below affect one or more of these conditions.
Causes listed below are commonly associated with high triglycerides. Work with your doctor or another health care professional to get an accurate diagnosis.
Low Triglycerides But High Ldl
Triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins are both found in your bloodstream. Along with high-density lipoproteins, these particles make up your cholesterol profile. According to the American Heart Association, high levels of triglycerides and LDL cholesterol are associated with an increased risk of coronary diseases. Optimally, triglyceride levels should be below 150 mg/dl, and LDL should be below 100 mg/dl.
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Rare Causes Of High Triglycerides
Certain medical conditions and states can cause high triglyceride levels, but they are not as common a trigger as some of the better-known causes. These include:
Familial hypertriglyceridemia: A rare genetic disorder that causes high triglyceride levels that exceed 1,000 mg/dL. As the name suggests, this condition runs in families with members having abnormal levels of high-density lipoprotein , low-density lipoprotein , and triglycerides.
Pregnancy: Triglyceride levels rise in expectant mothers and tend to peak during the third trimester. However, after giving birth, most women experience a return to normal levels.
Liver disease: The liver plays an important role in processing fats. If it becomes compromised in some way, such as in the case of fatty liver disease, overproduction and accumulation of fat in liver cells can occur. This leads to excessive amounts of inflammation and even death if no treatment is implemented. Proper liver function can be disrupted by alcoholism, malnutrition, pregnancy, poisoning, diabetes, hypothyroidism, kidney disease, and lupus.
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