Normal: < 120 And< 80 Mmhg
When your heart beats, it pumps blood through blood vessels called arteries and creates pressure in them. The higher number represents the pressure while your heart is beating. The lower number represents the pressure when your heart is resting between beats. Your blood pressure can change from minute to minute when you change your position or during physical activities, or when you are stressed or sleeping. High blood pressure can damage the walls of your arteries. If your first reading is high, your doctor may take several more readings before deciding whether your blood pressure may be a health concern.
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Causes Of High Cholesterol
Are you bothered about the question of what is a good cholesterol ratio? As previously said, excessive cholesterol levels can have a significant impact on our general health. As a result, its important to understand what causes high cholesterol. Thyroid insufficiency, type 2 diabetes, and obesity are all common causes of hypercholesterolemia. Genetic illnesses could also cause it like familial hypercholesterolemia, which isnt all that uncommon roughly 0.3 percent of the population has mutations that produce high LDL cholesterol!
Your lifestyle, however, is the most essential factor determining your lipid and cholesterol levels! Diet influences cholesterol levels, although the magnitude of that effect varies by patient. Does Dietary Cholesterol Matter? Results of a Meta-Analysis the consumption of high-cholesterol foods raises serum cholesterol levels, according to a study published in 2016. Trans fatty acids also have a high atherogenic potential, as they lower HDL cholesterol while raising LDL cholesterol .
Triglyceride/hdl To Detect Insulin Resistance In Children
In children 5-18 years old, a study from Turkey found that TG/HDL ratio was significantly higher in patients who had insulin resistance and fatty liver than in those who did not. There was no significant difference in TG/HDL ratio between female-male, prepubertal-pubertal, and overweight/obese patients. There was no correlation between age, body mass index standard deviation score , and TG/HDL ratio.
Again, this study shows that insulin resistance and fatty liver can be detected in children even before becoming obese.
The next part will show the TG/HDL ratio in predicting diseases.
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What Is High Cholesterol
Cholesterol is a type of fat in your blood. Your cells need cholesterol, and your body makes all it needs. But your body can make too much cholesterol if you eat a diet high in saturated and trans fat.
If you have too much cholesterol, it starts to build up in your arteries. This is called hardening of the arteries, or atherosclerosis. It is the starting point for some heart and blood flow problems. The buildup can narrow the arteries and make it harder for blood to flow through them. The buildup can also lead to dangerous blood clots and inflammation that can cause heart attacks and strokes.
There are different types of cholesterol.
- LDL is the bad cholesterol. its the kind that can raise your risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.
- HDL is the good cholesterol. Its the kind that is linked to a lower risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.
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Can Bad Cholesterol Levels Be Too Low Can Good Cholesterol Levels Be Too High
It isnt often that people have bad cholesterol that is too low or good cholesterol that is too high. There are studies being done that suggest that extremes of any kind are not healthy for everyone.
However, there is data from clinical trials to support that there is no evidence of harm when LDLs remain < 40mg/dl on statin therapy.
In some cases, genetic conditions can cause you to have very low cholesterol levels. In other cases, nutritional problems, some cancers, hypothyroidism and certain infections can also cause low cholesterol levels. In any of these types of situations, the underlying issues need to be addressed.
In terms of having too much of a good thing, researchers are studying the effects of too much HDL, the good cholesterol. No conclusions have been reached, but there have been studies into the possible relationship between high HDL and cancer, and a greater risk of heart attack among the high risk. Excessively high HDL may be dysfunctional HDL and not protective.
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How Is High Cholesterol Treated
There are several ways to lower high blood cholesterol , including lifestyle changes or medication, or both. Your healthcare provider will work with you to determine which therapy is best for you.
Healthcare providers like to start with the least invasive treatments when possible, such as lifestyle changes. Youll be advised to:
- Avoid tobacco. If you do smoke, quit. Smoking is bad for you in many ways, and reducing your level of good cholesterol is one of them.
- Change the way you eat. Limit the number of trans fats and saturated fat. Eat heart-healthy foods like fruits, vegetables, poultry, fish and whole grains. Limit red meat, sugary products and dairy products made with whole milk.
- Get more exercise. Try to get about 150 minutes of physical activity every week, or about 30 minutes per day for most days of the week.
- Keep a healthy weight. If you need to lose weight, talk to your healthcare provider about safe ways to do this. Youll see results even before you reach your ideal weight. Losing even 10% of your body weight makes a difference in your cholesterol levels.
- Reduce the effect of negative emotions. Learn healthy ways to deal with anger, stress or other negative emotions.
- Control blood sugar and blood pressure. Make sure you follow your healthcare providers instructions for blood sugar levels, especially if you have diabetes, and for keeping blood pressure in the healthy range.
- Atorvastatin .
- Simvastatin .
- Pitavastatin .
Why This Is A Problem
You see, these lipoproteins mentioned above arent supposed to be hanging around in the blood for very long. VLDLs pop out of the liver ready to drop off fat-based energy in the form of Triglycerides from the getgo. They bounce around your vascular system binding to tissues that need the energy and get smaller and smaller from less cargo in the process. From there they are remodeled to IDLs, which are then cleared by the liver or remodeled again to an LDL. This succession of stages to the final LDL takes under 90 minutes. So how long do LDLs hang out? 2-4 days!
This is worth reemphasizing because its key to understanding Cholesterol Remnants. Again:
So given this, wed fully expect that the vast majority of lipoproteins that originated from the liver would be in that final LDL stage, even if they started out as VLDLs, right? Yes, of course!
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Total Cholesterol To Hdl Ratio
The total cholesterol to HDL ratio calculator is used to determine their proportion in the blood. The total cholesterol/HDL ratio is considered to be the least precise in determining your health risk. So, what should your cholesterol ratio be?
- The optimum ratio is below 3.5.
- An average total cholesterol/HDL ratio is considered below 5.0.
- And an elevated ratio is above 5.0.
How To Determine Your Lipid Profile By Using A Cholesterol Calculator
Based on your blood sample test results, you can easily calculate the most common cholesterol parameters essential for the health of your heart and overall wellness. They can be provided by the lipid profile calculation chart. And they include LDL/HDL, triglycerides/HDL, and total cholesterol/HDL ratios. You need to know the four fundamental values to use a cholesterol levels calculator.
In order to calculate total cholesterol, you need only three values, which are interconnected according to this formula: TC=HDL+LDL+0.2xTG . Lets first determine the normal and elevated values before calculating their ratios which serve as reliable indicators of CVD risk.
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How To Maintain Healthy Cholesterol Levels
Only foods of animal origin contain cholesterol. The richest sources are:
- fatty meats
- animal organs
- egg yolks
- high-fat dairy products
You should also note that if you decide to cut fat from your diet completely, cholesterol will not normalize by itself.
There are some tips on how to maintain a normal cholesterol level:
- Eat foods rich in soluble fiber.
- Include the recommended number of servings of fruits and vegetables in your diet.
- Quit smoking and excessive drinking, as alcohol and cholesterol levels are interrelated.
- Restrict high-calorie sweet and fatty foods.
- Engage in regular physical activity.
- Lose excess weight and maintain a normal BMI.
Even people with high LDL levels can eat eggs and dairy products in moderation. However, it is recommended to restrict the number of egg yolks to up to three per week. For dairy products, it is advisable to choose low-fat or non-fat cheeses, yogurts, cottage cheese, and sour cream in order to have normal total cholesterol levels.
Interestingly, garlic has been shown to reduce liver cholesterol production. And oatmeal has a similar effect. Moreover, research relates the ketogenic diet and cholesterol levels. In fact, it has confirmed that this diet can help lower total cholesterol and LDL while increasing HDL levels.
A healthy diet is crucial, but it must be a lifelong change to ensure good results. Crash diets wont result in normal cholesterol levels for adults.
How Does A Cholesterol Calculator Work
Some LDL calculators operate using the Friedewald equation from 1972, while others use the Iranian lipid profile calculation formula from 2008. Based on the blood sample results for total cholesterol, triglycerides, and HDL, it calculates LDL cholesterol levels. The second equation is often suggested for those with a small carbohydrate intake when the triglyceride content is smaller than the mean value required.
You can choose to type the three values into the cholesterol calculator as mmol/L or mg/dL according to the obtained results from the lab.
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What Happens If High Cholesterol Goes Untreated
High blood levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides have been linked to the development of CVDs, along with other factors such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The risk of damage to the vascular walls and the formation of deposits and blockages increases when there is more bad and less good cholesterol in our blood. The good news is that the reduction in total cholesterol by 1% leads to a 2% reduction in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
Increased cholesterol levels may be caused by a familial predisposition as well, as is the case in about 3% of people. Usually, blood cholesterol is high from an early age and is unaffected by the diet. In these cases, specialists recommend taking lipid-lowering agents such as statins from a younger age. These drugs are prescribed and taken under medical supervision.
However, it is a myth that lipid-lowering medication can be stopped as soon as your results are within the cholesterol and triglycerides normal range. The levels may be lowered, but if you stop taking the drug, the cholesterol, and especially LDL, will rise again. You should consult your doctor about any change in your treatment.
In about 20% of the population, high LDL cholesterol levels are associated with another underlying condition such as:
- increased adrenal function
Do You Need Medication To Control High Cholesterol
Whether youll need to take medication to lower your cholesterol depends on your levels, as well as on your other risk factors for heart disease, including your sex, age, health history, and family medical history.
Until recently, doctors decided whether or not to treat high cholesterol based on these numbers, explains Holly Andersen, MD, an attending cardiologist at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Weill-Cornell Medical Center in New York City. Now, when it comes to deciding if youd benefit from taking medication to lower your cholesterol, your score is no longer a solo consideration, Dr. Andersen says. The change is a result of the November 2013 guideline on the assessment of cardiovascular risk issued jointly by the American Heart Association and the American College of Cardiology. These recommendations advise doctors to consider a patients overall health for heart disease, not just cholesterol numbers.
Some of the factors used to measure your heart disease risk are:
- Your age, gender, and race
- Whether you smoke
- Blood pressure
- Whether you have diabetes
Your physician may plug your numbers and other factors into the ACC/AHA ASCVD Risk Estimator to determine your 10-year risk of heart disease or stroke. If you have the data, you can calculate the risk yourself using an online tool like this Heart Risk Calculator.
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Why Is Tg/hdl Important
TG/HDL is important because it is an important predictor of risk for heart disease. It is also a marker of insulin resistance, and insulin resistance is the major cause of prediabetes, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes.
The Womens Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation study studied 544 women referred for CV disease evaluation . The TG/HDL ranged from 0.3 to 18.4. It was a powerful predictor of all mortality and cardiovascular events.
This chart shows the WISE study range of TG/HDL. Individuals with lower TG/HDL had lower CV disease risk.
When Should You Contact Your Healthcare Provider About Your Cholesterol Levels
In truth, your healthcare provider will probably talk to you about your numbers first. As always, contact your provider if you have any new or worsening pain or other uncomfortable feelings. Make sure you know what medications you take and what they are expected to do. Call the provider if you have a reaction to the medicine.
Before you go to the office, and after you have had a cholesterol test, it helps to have a list of questions prepared about your test results and any proposed treatment.
A note from Cleveland Clinic
When considering cholesterol numbers, its important to remember that you really have the ability to make those numbers go in your favor. What you choose to eat, how much you are able to move and how you deal with lifes ups and downs are things that you can influence.
Last reviewed by a Cleveland Clinic medical professional on 07/31/2020.
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Triglyceride/hdl Cholesterol Ratio And Insulin Resistance
Insulin resistance is a condition in which cells fail to respond to the normal actions of insulin. Most people with this condition have high levels of insulin in their blood. Insulin resistance appears to play a significant role in coronary heart disease and can predict mortality. The condition is common among individuals with abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome.
A study in which most of the participants were Caucasian and overweight identified TG/HDL-C ratio of 3 or greater as a reliable predictor of insulin resistance.
However, not all studies have found the TG/HDL-C ratio to be associated with insulin resistance. For example, in a relatively small study of 125 African American participants, neither fasting TG nor the TG/HDL-C ratio was shown to be a marker of insulin resistance.
Although confirmatory studies are needed, data suggests that an elevated TG/HDL-C ratio may be clinically useful for the prediction of insulin resistance.
Research Design And Methods
Obese youths had an oral glucose tolerance test and a fasting lipid profile. Insulin sensitivity was estimated using the whole body insulin sensitivity index and homeostasis model assessment -IR and evaluated, in a subgroup of 146 obese youths, by the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp. The cohort was divided by ethnicity and then stratified into ethnicity-specific tertiles of TG/HDL-C ratio. Differences across tertiles were evaluated, and the association between the TG/HDL-C ratio and insulin sensitivity was defined by a multiple stepwise linear regression analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was determined to calculate the TG/HDL-C ratio cutoff to identify insulin-resistant subjects by ethnicity.
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Anthropometric And Main Biochemical Parameters In Each Ethnic Group According To Sex And Tertiles Of Tg/hdl
As shown in Table 1, although there were significant sex differences in body composition in each ethnic group, there were none for lipid levels. Therefore, the TG/HDL-C ratio was similar in both boys and girls in all ethnic groups.
Given the significant ethnic differences in both fasting TGs and HDL levels among the three groups, we stratified each ethnic group into tertiles of TG/HDL-C ratio . The age and sex distribution across the tertiles were similar in all three ethnic groups. Although a significant increase in BMI, BMI-Z, and waist circumference across the tertiles of TG/HDL-C was seen in all three ethnic groups, no differences were documented for body composition.
Triglycerides To Hdl Ratio
The triglycerides/HDL proportion is calculated by dividing the triglycerides by the HDL levels. A cholesterol risk calculator for this ratio is also used to identify the likelihood of a heart attack, though not as often as the previous ratio.
- The normal ratio is 2.0 or less.
- Values between 4.06.0 are considered to be high.
- A triglycerides/HDL ratio of 6.0 or more is considered very high.
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What Is The Cholesterol Ratio
Three cholesterol ratios are indicators of cardiovascular system health. LDL HDL Ratio LDL level divided with HDL level Triglyceride HDL Ratio Triglyceride level divided by HDL Level Total cholesterol HDL Ratio Total cholesterol divided into HDL levels. So if someone refers to only one cholesterol ratio, it is likely that they mean the TC HDL ratio.