Ldl Vs Hdl Good Vs Bad
If cholesterol is essential for overall health, why would one type be bad?
In simple terms, if there is too much LDL cholesterol running through your blood vessels, it can, over time, start to build up on the sides of those blood vessels. This buildup is typically referred to as plaque.
Plaque buildup in your blood vessels can eventually cause those vessels to become narrower. The more narrow your blood vessels are, the harder it is for blood to reach your heart and other organs.
When blood flow becomes very blocked, it can cause chest pain and even a heart attack.
HDL cholesterol, on the other hand, returns cholesterol to the liver so it can be flushed from the body.
How To Calculate Total Cholesterol
This article was medically reviewed by Victor Catania, MD. Dr. Catania is a board certified Family Medicine Physician in Pennsylvania. He received his MD from the Medical University of the Americas in 2012 and completed his residency in Family Medicine at the Robert Packer Hospital. He is a member of the American Board of Family Medicine.There are 9 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page.wikiHow marks an article as reader-approved once it receives enough positive feedback. This article received 11 testimonials and 83% of readers who voted found it helpful, earning it our reader-approved status. This article has been viewed 187,970 times.
Note: In the information below, a lab test interpretation of the values may vary between labs and between doctors. Always view your lab results and speak to your doctor before coming to any conclusions about your lab test values.
Can Bad Cholesterol Levels Be Too Low Can Good Cholesterol Levels Be Too High
It isnt often that people have bad cholesterol that is too low or good cholesterol that is too high. There are studies being done that suggest that extremes of any kind are not healthy for everyone.
Even though there is no clear-cut number about what LDL level is too low, levels under 40 mg/dL may be associated with certain health issues, including depression/anxiety, and hemorrhagic stroke.
However, there is data from clinical trials to support that there is no evidence of harm when LDLs remain < 40mg/dl on statin therapy.
In some cases, genetic conditions can cause you to have very low cholesterol levels. In other cases, nutritional problems, some cancers, hypothyroidism and certain infections can also cause low cholesterol levels. In any of these types of situations, the underlying issues need to be addressed.
In terms of having too much of a good thing, researchers are studying the effects of too much HDL, the good cholesterol. No conclusions have been reached, but there have been studies into the possible relationship between high HDL and cancer, and a greater risk of heart attack among the high risk. Excessively high HDL may be dysfunctional HDL and not protective.
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Cholesterol Hdl Ldl Triglycerides Ratio Calculator
Cholesterol, HDL, LDL, triglycerides ratio calculator explains you what your TC, HDL, LDL and triglyceride levels mean and whether you are under any risk for heart and cardiovascular diseases. The calculator shows you interpretation of your cholesterol levels and the TC/HDL, LDL/HDL and triglyceride/HDL ratios. Elevated total cholesterol is not necessarily an alarm and doesn’t always present the whole truth about the condition of the body, while elevated triglycerides in the blood increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, including risk of coronary artery disease , risk of heart attack and stroke, more than elevated total cholesterol.Do you have results in mmol/l? How to convert mmol/l to mg/dl?For total, HDL, and LDL cholesterol multiply mmol/l by 38.67, for example 4.5 x 38.67 = 174 For triglycerides multiply mmol/l by 88.57, for example 1.4 x 88,57 = 124 How to use calculator? Select your gender, enter your total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides numbers. Press the button “Interpretation of the results, calculate the ratios”. That?s all!
How Does This Ldl Calculator Work
This health tool computes the LDL cholesterol value from the total cholesterol, HDL, triglyceride levels according to the two formulas used in these cases: the Friedewald and Iranian study . The second formula is often recommended when the triglyceride levels are lower than average, as in the case of those with a low carbohydrate diet.
For your convenience, the LDL calculator allows you to enter the three values in either mg/dL or mmol/L . You will be given the two results in the corresponding measurement unit so that you can further on interpret the results easily.
In case of the 1st tab “LDL in mg/dL” these are the equations used:
– The Friedewald formula: LDL = TC – HDL TG / 5.0
– The Iranian study formula: LDL = TC / 1.19 + TG / 1.9 HDL / 1.1 38
In case of the 2nd tab “LDL in mmol/L” these are the formulas behind the algorithm:
– The Friedewald equation: LDL = TC – HDL TG / 2.17
– The Iranian study method: LDL = TC / 1.19 + TG / 0.81 HDL / 1.1 0.98
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About Cholesterol Testing And The Lipid Panel:
This kind of test is one of routine based on a simple blood sample from you. The health professional will take a sample of your blood that will further be analyzed in a laboratory and in about 24 hours the results will be ready.
However, there are some rules you need to respect to make sure that the test will be properly done. The usual cholesterol tests require a period of 9-12 hours of fasting before the blood is drawn and avoidance of strenuous effort before the test.
If you are consuming food or beverages then the test will only provide total cholesterol and HDL cholesterol values because the LDL and triglyceride levels are influenced by the food recently consumed.
You should also inform your doctor about any medical conditions you have, any medical treatment you are following or other details that you consider relevant and that could interfere with the results of the test.
How To Calculate Ldl Cholesterol
This article was medically reviewed by Luba Lee, FNP-BC, MS. Luba Lee, FNP-BC is a board certified Family Nurse Practitioner and educator in Tennessee with over a decade of clinical experience. Luba has certifications in Pediatric Advanced Life Support , Emergency Medicine, Advanced Cardiac Life Support , Team Building, and Critical Care Nursing. She received her Master of Science in Nursing from the University of Tennessee in 2006.There are 11 references cited in this article, which can be found at the bottom of the page. This article has been viewed 8,740 times.
Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol typically makes up 60% to 70% of your body’s total cholesterol. It’s considered the worst form of cholesterol, as it’s known to cause plaque deposits inside your arteries.XTrustworthy SourceHarvard Medical SchoolHarvard Medical School’s Educational Site for the PublicGo to source Measuring your LDL cholesterol is important in order to monitor your health and overall wellness. Learning the ways to calculate your LDL cholesterol can help you stay on top of your health.
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Question 3 Why Does Quest No Longer Rely On The Friedewald Equation
Although the Friedewald equation it is still widely used and generally produces reliable results, it may underestimate LDL-C at the low LDL-C levels that modern treatment guidelines call for and therapies can achieve .3 PCSK-9 inhibitors can drive LDL-C levels even lower . Such low LDL-C concentrations are below the concentrations considered when the Friedewald equation was developed.2
This limitation relates to the fact that the Friedewald equation uses a fixed ratio of triglyceride to VLDL-C it does not allow for heterogeneity in the ratio of triglycerides to VLDL-C. This becomes a problem especially at lower LDL-C and higher triglyceride concentrations, when the Friedewald calculation tends to underestimate LDL-C. In a 2013 study, Martin and colleagues compared the results of direct LDL-C and calculated LDL-C using the Friedewald equation in more than 1.3 million U.S. adults.4 Friedewald-estimated LDL-C tended to be lower than directly measured LDL-C, especially in patients with calculated LDL-C levels below 100 mg/dL. At triglyceride levels 150 mg/dL, calculated LDL-C was often below < 70 mg/dL in patients with directly measured LDL-C in the 71-80 mg/dL range. These findings suggest that the tendency of the Friedewald equation to underestimate LDL-C at higher triglyceride and lower LDL-C levels could result in high-risk patients being undertreated.
Ratio And Risk For Women
Because women often have higher levels of good cholesterol, their cholesterol ratio risk categories differ. According to the same study, a 4.4 ratio indicates average risk for heart disease in women. Heart disease risk for women doubles if their ratio is 7, while a ratio of 3.3 signifies roughly half the average risk.
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What Is Cholesterol And Why Is It Important For Our Health
Cholesterol is a fatty substance that is made mainly in the liver. Smaller quantities find their way into our bodies through the food we consume. Contrary to popular belief, cholesterol is not just a bad guy. It is a critical structural component of all our cells and essential for producing vital hormones and vitamin D.
Our body absorbs about half of the cholesterol from food. Then, cholesterol enters the blood, which already contains some quantities produced in the liver. The risk of atherosclerosis in our blood vessels increases when normal cholesterol levels are exceeded, especially if other risk factors are present.
Because cholesterol and other lipids are insoluble in water, they bind to unique proteins in the blood plasma. These unique molecules are called lipoproteins. By them, lipids can be transported to tissues and organs.
Why Is It Important To Measure Your Cholesterol Level Periodically
- If you are over the age of 30 years, take a lipid profile test regularly to know your cholesterol levels for necessary lifestyle changes and medication, if necessary.
- You should check your cholesterol every year if you are taking medicine to control your cholesterol levels, or if you have been diagnosed with diabetes, heart disease or high blood pressure.
- If you have a family history of heart disease, cholesterol test is recommended every 5 years, beginning at the age of 20 years.
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If Cholesterol Is Necessary Why Do We Have To Worry About How Much We Have
Having enough cholesterol to meet your needs is important. Having too much cholesterol can cause problems. If your cholesterol levels are high, the condition is called hypercholesterolemia. If your cholesterol levels are low, the condition is called hypocholesterolemia. It is not common to have cholesterol levels that are too low, but it can happen.
Cholesterol Converter And Triglyceride Converter
Cholesterol ConverterCholesterol values in the United States are expressed in mg / dL and in Canada, the UK and Australia in mmol / L
To use the Cholesterol Converter, enter a value into the appropriate field and click on the Convert button to see the cholesterol level expressed in the other standard.
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Are Test Results Accurate
HDL cholesterol testing is extremely common and frequently used to evaluate cardiovascular risk. Like any test, though, HDL cholesterol tests are not perfectly accurate. Certain factors that can influence accuracy of any single test include:
- Individual variability: There can be some differences in HDL cholesterol levels based on individual factors like stress or posture during the test. Minor variation can also occur between laboratories.
- Acute illness: Levels of cholesterol in the blood are affected by inflammation, so infections or other illnesses that produce inflammation may interfere with the accuracy of HDL cholesterol tests.
- Certain blood disorders: Some conditions that affect blood cells cause an increase in a type of protein, known as an M protein, in the blood. In people with these conditions, HDL cholesterol tests may show a lower level of HDL cholesterol than is actually present in their blood.
Point-of-care and at-home tests that use a fingerstick blood sample are nearly as accurate as laboratory testing, but there may be more variability in accuracy based on the brand and the quality of its test.
Cholesterol Calculator: Determine Your Cvd Risk Factors
Your heart and cardiovascular system are continuously exposed to a variety of risk factors. High cholesterol has one of the most significant influences on the development of cardiovascular diseases . Therefore, it is commonly checked during routine laboratory examinations.
The concentration of total cholesterol in the blood is only a general indicator. A cholesterol calculator needs to be used to determine the actual risk of developing atherosclerosis and subsequent cardiovascular complications. Read on to learn exactly how to calculate your cholesterol and triglyceride levels to keep this risk factor under control!
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What Are Normal Levels Of Cholesterol
Normal levels of cholesterol are different depending on your age and sex. These guidelines show desirable total, non-HDL,LDL and HDL levels by age and sex.
Table 1: Target cholesterol levels by age and sex
|Age and sex|
People aged 19 years and younger Men aged 20 years and olderWomen aged 20 years and older
The table above spells out the numbers for normal cholesterol levels. The table below shows you cholesterol levels that are higher than normal. High cholesterol numbers vary by age group and sex, and may be different for those who have heart disease. These guidelines represent high cholesterol numbers for those who do not have heart disease.
Table 2: High total, non-HDL and LDL cholesterol levels by age and sex
|Age and sex|
|People aged 19 years and younger|
Borderline: 170-199 mg/dL
High: Greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL
Borderline: 120-144 mg/dL
High: Greater than or equal to 145 mg/dL
Borderline: 110-129 mg/dL
High: Greater than or equal to 130 mg/dL
High: Greater than or equal to 239 mg/dL
Near optimal or above optimal: 100-129 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
Very high: Greater than 189 mg/dL
High: Greater than or equal to 239 mg/dL
Near optimal or above optimal: 100-129 mg/dL
Borderline high: 130-159 mg/dL
Very high: Greater than 189 mg/dL
LDL cholesterol levels
If you do not have heart disease or blood vessel disease, and you are not at high risk for developing heart disease, the optimal number is less than 100 mg/dL.
Question 5 How Does The Martin
Compared with the Friedewald equation, the Martin-Hopkins calculation provides better correlation with direct LDL-C measurements.3-7 Concordance with guideline-based risk classification, especially at high triglyceride and low LDL-C, is also superior using the Martin-Hopkins calculation.3-7 In the 2013 validation study mentioned above,4 the improvement was greatest for people with estimated LDL-C levels below 70 mg/dL, especially those with higher triglyceride levels . Thus, the primary advantage of the Martin-Hopkins equation is that it is applicable to low LDL-C levels even in the presence of elevated triglyceride concentrations.
The improved accuracy at low LDL-C allows more accurate assessment of patients in the high-risk categories undergoing aggressive treatment with low LDL goals. In addition, the ability to adjust for high triglyceride levels may improve reliability of LDL-C estimation when fasting is not desired or practical.8 This can be convenient for risk assessment, especially for patients who have difficulty fasting .8
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A More Accurate Measurement Tool
The traditional Friedewald equation estimates LDL cholesterol this way: total cholesterol minus HDL cholesterol minus triglycerides divided by five. For simplicitys sake, the formula applies a one-size-fits-all factor of five to everyone. But Johns Hopkins researchers found that this often makes LDL cholesterol appear lower than it really is for some high-risk patients. The researchers sought a more accurate formula that would take into account specific details about a persons cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
Using a database of blood lipid samples from more than 1.3 million Americansalmost 3,000 times larger than the one used to develop the Friedewald equation Johns Hopkins researchers developed a more accurate system for calculating LDL cholesterol. It can be used to make more precise decisions about treatment to prevent heart attack and stroke.
This newer LDL cholesterol formula is being adopted by U.S. laboratories as well as others around the world. The best implementation is direct coding the LDL cholesterol estimation in the lab IT system, which automates the process and saves clinicians time. The formula is also available as a mobile device app called the LDL Cholesterol Calculator. It is available on the iTunes App Store and on Google Play, for those whose lab hasnt adopted it.
Researchers hope the new formula will one day be adopted by all labs that process lipid panels, as it can improve patient care.
What Happens If High Cholesterol Goes Untreated
High blood levels of LDL cholesterol and triglycerides have been linked to the development of CVDs, along with other factors such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The risk of damage to the vascular walls and the formation of deposits and blockages increases when there is more bad and less good cholesterol in our blood. The good news is that the reduction in total cholesterol by 1% leads to a 2% reduction in the risk of developing cardiovascular disease.
Increased cholesterol levels may be caused by a familial predisposition as well, as is the case in about 3% of people. Usually, blood cholesterol is high from an early age and is unaffected by the diet. In these cases, specialists recommend taking lipid-lowering agents such as statins from a younger age. These drugs are prescribed and taken under medical supervision.
However, it is a myth that lipid-lowering medication can be stopped as soon as your results are within the cholesterol and triglycerides normal range. The levels may be lowered, but if you stop taking the drug, the cholesterol, and especially LDL, will rise again. You should consult your doctor about any change in your treatment.
In about20% of the population, high LDL cholesterol levels are associated with another underlying condition such as:
- increased adrenal function
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