Plasma Cholesterol Vs Lipoprotein Cholesterol
A 1986 study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition provided support for the benefits of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids even when combined with high cholesterol intake.
The study involved 6 participants tested with 3 diets. The participants were first placed on a diet providing 710 mg/day of cholesterol. Thereafter, they ate a diet with lower cholesterol content along with 40 g/day of fish oil. Finally, they took the same fish oil supplement and an egg yolk diet with high cholesterol content .
The results of the study showed that switching from a high-cholesterol diet to a low-cholesterol diet plus fish oil supplement reduced cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
The dietary change and fish oil supplementation lowered VLDL, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride levels as well as the level of apoproteins A1 and B.
When the study participants were switched back to a high-cholesterol diet plus fish oil supplement, only plasma cholesterol rose. There was no significant increase in lipoprotein cholesterol or apoprotein levels.
These results showed that even though fish oil supplements may not reduce the amount of cholesterol in the plasma, it can reduce the amount of cholesterol carried by lipoproteins . Since lipoprotein cholesterols are the determinant of cardiovascular health, fish oil can improve cardiovascular health even when plasma measurements indicate it does not lower cholesterol levels.
Other Uses Than Controlling Cholesterol Fish Oil Is Good For
The above benefits of fish oil are awesome, but did you know that fish oil can do more than just control your cholesterol, keep your heart healthy, fight off cancer, help you process food efficiently, and balance your mood?
Here are a few uses other than controlling cholesterol fish oil is good for:
Wow, the benefits just keep piling up, and fish oil is turning out to be quite an awesome thing to take.
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Try A Different Fatty Acid
The omega fatty acids were discovered in 1929 by Mildred and George Burr, a husband and wife team. Fast forward 90 years, and another husband and wife doctor/scientist team discovered a new essential fatty acid. It’s called pentadecanoic acid, or C15:0 for short.
C15:0 is an odd-chain saturated fatty acid that a growing body of evidence supports as an essential fatty acid that strengthens are cells and helps us live healthier, longer lives.*
Elevate your cells. Elevate your self.
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What Vitamin Helps With Vertigo
Research published August 2020 in Neurology, the journal of the American Academy of Neurology, describes the benefit of taking both vitamin D and calcium twice a day to decrease a recurrence of vertigo for individuals predisposed to experiencing this disconcerting and sometimes dangerous physiologic symptom.
What Exactly Is Fish Oil
Fish oil supplements contain oils derived from the skin and liver of fatty fish such as mackerel, tuna, sardines, and salmon. They are an excellent source of omega-3 fatty acids, a polyunsaturated fat that helps protect against heart disease and possibly other health conditions . Omega-3 fatty acids come in three varieties. One is alpha-linolenic acid , found in vegetable oils such as soybean, canola, and walnut. The other two are eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid , only found in fatty fish and fish-derived supplements. Though Omega-3 fatty acids are essential to humans, they cannot be produced by the body and must be consumed through diet or supplementation. Unfortunately, most Americans dont get enough of any of these types of omega-3 fatty acids in their diets. So, many people look to fish oil supplements to gain their daily recommended value of omega-3 fatty acids and gain its heart-healthy benefits.
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What Is The Best Exercise For Cholesterol
The best way to reduce cholesterol is through aerobic exercise that works multiple muscle groups. The American Heart Association says that you should exercise for at least 30 minutes five to seven times a week. Dr. Mark Hyman, M.D., a professor of medicine at the University of California, San Francisco, has studied the effects of exercise on cholesterol levels.
If youre overweight or obese, you may need to increase the amount of aerobic exercise you do, says Mark Sisson, a registered dietitian and certified personal trainer in New York City. If you have a history of heart disease or high blood pressure, your doctor may want to talk to you about increasing your aerobic activity, he says.
Increase Your Consumption Of Dietary Fiber
Ideally, you should be getting 25 to 35 grams of fiber a day, says Dr. Cho. Fiber binds to cholesterol and eliminates it from your body.
To increase your fiber intake, eat more whole grains, legumes like beans and lentils, vegetables and fruits. You should be getting a good mix of both soluble fibers, which are more beneficial for cholesterol, and insoluble fibers, which are better for your gut health.
Lower cholesterol isnt the only benefit of getting enough fiber. Other benefits include reducing your risk of diseases, preventing constipation and keeping you full longer.
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Can Too Much Of A Vitamin Cause Dizziness
Here are a few vitamins that are proven to be toxic if taken in excess, as well as their symptoms of overdose: Iron- Nausea, bloody stools, diarrhea, dizziness, headache, fluid build-up in the lungs and fever. Vitamin A-Hair loss, liver damage, severe headaches, bone pain, blurred vision, dry skin and vomiting.
What Liver Enzymes May Be Elevated
Elevated liver enzymes indicating potential cellular damage include the following aminotransferases:
- Alanine transaminase
- Alkaline phosphatase
- Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase
AST and ALT are the most frequently measured enzymes, although GGT is measured occasionally, especially in alcoholic liver disease.
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Fish Oil And Your Cholesterol
It seems like a sure bet fish oil helps support heart health, so it makes sense it would lower your cholesterol, too. Unfortunately, the claims may not be as science-backed as theyre advertised to be.
Fish oil has been studied extensively with relation to cholesterol numbers. In over 21 studies of healthy men and women, fish oil supplements were actually shown to increase bad LDL cholesterol. For someone with an already unhealthy LDL or total cholesterol screening, this could increase their risk of developing heart disease.
DHA has been shown to increase LDL, while pure EPA has been shown to have no effect on LDL. Further, Omega-3s are FDA-approved for treating triglyceridemia and not hypercholesterolemia. Not to mention, omega-3s increase ones risk of bleeding and are not recommended prior to elective surgery.
Theres slightly conflicting evidence in new research, though. Fish oil does have an impact on cholesterol, and it isnt simply an increase in LDL cholesterol. Studies of fish oil supplement use also reveal that fish oil helps increase your good HDL cholesterol levels. The same studies also reported that fish oil helped increase the molecule size of LDL cholesterol.
The increase in LDL cholesterol molecules makes them less likely to cling to artery walls, which can decrease your chances of developing atherosclerosis.
Bottom Line: Should You Take Fish Oil To Lower Your Cholesterol
Probably not. If you have high cholesterol numbers, there is good evidence to show that taking fish oil wont help you regain cholesterol balance. In fact, it could place you at higher risk of developing even higher LDL levels.
If, however, you do not have high cholesterol, taking fish oil is unlikely to raise your cholesterol levels so significantly that it makes you unhealthy. Ultimately, getting a yearly blood screening will ensure your cholesterol levels are still within healthy range while you take a supplement.
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Does Vitamin D Raise Cholesterol
According to a new study presented at the american college of cardiologys annual scientific session, higher levels of vitamins d and d2 are associated with higher cholesterol levels. The study, published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, examined the association between serum 25D concentrations and the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in a large population-based cohort of US adults.
Participants were recruited from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey , a nationally representative survey of the US population conducted by the Centers for Disease Control and Preventions National Center for Health Statistics . The researchers found that participants with the highest levels of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol had a significantly lower incidence of CVD and diabetes than those who had the lowest levels.
Fish Oil Research: Mixed Results
Other studies have also looked at fish oil and cardiovascular health. The evidence has been mixed, partly because researchers used different types and quantities of fish oils and different placebos.
- The 2007 JELIS trial also evaluated the use of EPA and statins and found a reduction in non-fatal coronary events. Major coronary events were reduced slightly in those with a history of coronary artery disease. No placebo was used.
- The 2019 VITAL study used supplements including vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids. It showed fish oil didnt lower the risk for major cardiac events.
- The 2019 REDUCE-IT trial evaluated icosapent ethyl , a high-dose pure EPA . The study included people with heart disease or people who were taking a statin medication with raised triglyceride levels. People on the omega-3 supplement had a 25% lower incidence of heart disease and stroke, and a 20% reduction in death from heart disease.
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Its Unclear Whether Benefits Of Supplementation Outweigh Risks
Asked whether the benefits of omega-3 supplements for healthy people outweighed their potential risks, Dr. Laurence M. Epstein, system director of electrophysiology at Northwell Healths Sandra Atlas Bass Heart Hospital in New York, said its unclear.
This remains controversial and is why this study was done, Epstein said. Some have claimed that they can lower the risk of coronary artery disease by affecting lipids such as triglycerides. Others have suggested that they can reduce the risk of life threatening heart rhythm problems.
Epstein emphasized the importance of telling your doctor what supplements youre taking.
It is crucial that patients let their doctors know all the supplements they are taking, he said. This study suggests if you have atrial fibrillation, perhaps you should avoid these supplements.
Another Perspective On The Fish Oil
A 1990 study published in the journal, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis and Vascular Biology, provided useful insights into how fish oil affects different lipoproteins and their capacity to transport cholesterol.
For this study, the researchers recruited 33 men suffering from mild hypercholesterolemia and then divided them into 3 groups.
The men in the first group were given 14 g/day of linoleic acid from safflower oil the second group received 9 g/day of alpha-linolenic acid from linseed oil, and the third group got 3.8 g/day of omega-3 fatty acids from fish oil.
The results of the study showed that only fish oil reduced triglyceride levels. Also, only fish oil raised the level of LDL cholesterol. The fish oil group also benefitted from reduced VLDL apoprotein B.
While all three oils reduced HDL cholesterol, the biggest reduction was seen in the fish oil group.
Besides measuring the levels of lipoproteins, this study also measured the activity of the enzymes required for the lipoproteins to transport cholesterol. And this part of the study provided a unique perspective on the activities of LDL and HDL.
The results of the study showed that fish oil
- inhibited the transfer of cholesteryl ester between LDL and HDL by 23%
- reduced the activity of the plasma enzyme, cholesterol acetyltransferase by 21%
- reduced the production of thromboxane by 9%
Another rarely mentioned benefit of fish oil for cardiovascular health is its inhibition of thromboxane synthesis.
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Pentadecanoic Acid: How It Works
In the late 1970s, dietary guidelines were issued to the entire population in response to the epidemic of heart disease. The message? Eat less fat. We listened, and four decades later, heart disease is still the number one killer of Americans.
Turns out, not all fat is bad for us, and by reducing all types of fat in our diet, we created a nutritional deficiency that left us sick, tired, and, and less healthy.
C15:0 is found mostly in milkfat, which is why many of us dont have enough of it in our diets. The problem is, we ideally want to get the healthy saturated fats without the bad ones.
C15:0 helps keep our cells healthy by:
- Supporting cell membranes. This sturdy fatty acid gets into the cellular membrane and strengthens it, keeping it safe from external stressors.
- Increasing mitochondrial function. C15:0 has been shown to increase the energy source in our cells by 45%. When our cells have more energy, they can perform more cellular functions.
C15:0 also works to balance metabolism, immunity, mood, sleep, and even appetite. By activating special receptors in the body called PPARs that control these functions, C15:0 helps us to maintain homeostasis.
Bringing C15:0 back into our diet can help us lead healthier, more balanced lives, but we may want to get just the good C15:0 fat without cows and calories. Thankfully, theres a solution.
No Improvements In Patient Outcomes
Two meta-analyses investigated the effects of fish oil supplementation on mortality rates. A meta-analysis of 17 RCTs identified no relationship between omega-3 fatty acid intake and mortality .4 Follow-up for participants in the included studies ranged from one to 6.2 years. A Cochrane review of 48 RCTs and 41 cohort studies evaluating participants over six months showed no reduction in rates of overall mortality, cardiovascular events, or cancer.2 However, the length of follow-up may have been inadequate to establish effectiveness.
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What Other Drugs Will Affect Fish Oil
- A beta-blocker such as atenolol , carvedilol , labetalol , metoprolol , nadolol , propranolol , sotalol , and others, or
- A diuretic such as chlorothiazide , hydrochlorothiazide , chlorthalidone , indapamide , metolazone , and others
- Orlistat for weight loss
This list is not complete and other drugs may interact with Fish Oil. Tell your doctor about all medications you use. This includes prescription, over-the-counter, vitamin, and herbal products. Do not start a new medication without telling your doctor.1
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The Lowdown On Cholesterol
High-density lipoprotein cholesterol, or HDL, is considered good cholesterol because it helps your body get rid of some of the bad type: called low-density lipoprotein , according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
It picks up extra cholesterol particles from tissues and blood vessels and brings them back to the liver, where it is broken down and passed from the body, explains Rajsree Nambudripad, MD, an integrative medicine specialist with St. Jude Medical Center in Fullerton, California. The higher your HDL, the better.
A desirable level of HDL for men and women is 60 milligrams of cholesterol per deciliter of blood or above, according to the Mayo Clinic.
However, HDL only carriers away about a third to a fourth of your bad LDL cholesterol, the American Heart Association says. And its LDL that gives cholesterol its bad rap. Too much LDL cholesterol in your blood can cause a buildup of plaque in artery walls, restricting or blocking blood flow and possibly leading to heart problems, according to AHA.
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Increases Ldl Levels And Insulin Resistance
Fish oil seems to cause an increase in the levels of LDL or bad cholesterol in people with metabolic syndrome. People with metabolic syndrome are those who suffer from a number of conditions such as increased blood pressure, excess abdominal fat, increased blood sugar and cholesterol levels. They also showed increased insulin resistance as well.8 Some studies show that in people with high cholesterol, fish oil actually adversely affects the ratio of LDL to HDL and in some cases the triglyceride decrease is insignificant.9
Fo Effects On Plasma Tg
Omega-3 FAs have long been known to lower plasma TG along with variety of other drugs such as fibrates, statins, thiazolidinediones, niacin, and metformin. Although the TG-lowering effects of FO are not evident at intakes typical of Western diets they manifest at pharmacologic doses . This is similar to another dietary component, niacin , that is also lipid-lowering at supra-nutritional intakes . The pharmaceutical preparation of omega-3 acid FAs provides EPA and DHA as acid ethyl esters, and the approved dose is 4, 1-g capsules per day which provides 1,860 mg of EPA and 1,500 mg of DHA for a total of 3.4 g omega-3 FAs/day. The TG-lowering effect of EPA+DHA has been demonstrated in numerous trials and 3-4 g/day of omega-3 FAs decrease plasma TG by about 30% . The effect is dose dependent with the minimal effective dose being > 2 g/day . EPA and DHA appear to be equally potent in lowering plasma TG and are effective in multiple settings including type II diabetes , metabolic syndrome , non-alcoholic fatty liver disease , HIV-dyslipidemida , nephrotic syndrome and hemodialysis populations.
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How Statins Work
Statins stop the body from making cholesterol. They also help it to reabsorb plaque thats built up on the artery walls.
One longitudinal study found that 27.8 percent of Americans over 40 years old were using statins as of 2013.
2011 review , have found a decreased risk of heart disease in people taking fish oil supplements. Other studies, such as one 2013 clinical trial of 12,000 people with cardiovascular risk factors, have found no such evidence.
In addition, although fish oil does decrease triglycerides, there isnt sufficient evidence that it lowers heart attack risk.
When it comes to lowering low-density lipoprotein , also known as bad cholesterol, the evidence simply isnt there. In fact, fish oil can actually increase LDL levels for some people according to a 2013 literature review.
Food and Drug Administration , statins show an indisputable ability to prevent heart disease but should be taken with care.
Statins have benefits in addition to reducing your cholesterol. For example, they have anti-inflammatory properties that could work to stabilize blood vessels, and they can help prevent heart attacks, according to the Mayo Clinic.
Its because of their potential side effects, such as muscle pain, that theyre generally only prescribed to people with high cholesterol and a risk of cardiovascular disease. Theyre not considered preventive medicine.