Nutrient Deficiency & Heart Disease
Case #1:Optimal Nutrition and Liver: Normal Blood Cholesterol Levels
When the body gets all the MICRO NUTRIENTS in SUFFICIENT QUANTITY then the cells function optimally. Under these conditions:
- The liver synthesizes required amount of cholesterol. Vitamin C acts as a natural HMG Coenzyme A inhibitor.
- Liver makes normal levels of LDL. HDL & Lipoprotein*.
- The arteries are strong and healthy. The connective tissue just below the endothelial layer is healthy.
- The blood pressure is normal because there is no obstruction for the flow of blood to the heart.
- The heart pumps optimally at a constant rate.
- Circulatory system is healthy. The heart gets ample amount of oxygen and nutrients.
- The collagen synthesis is healthy. As a result, the connective tissue is strong and healthy.
*Note: Lipoprotein is another important lipid molecule similar to LDL cholesterol. Its levels are determined by genetics. Generally, in healthy persons it is present from 0.1 to 3%. It plays a great role in heart disease. It is considered as an independent risk factor of heart disease. Recent scientific studies show that the plaque attached to the arteries consists mainly a lp cholesterol and not LDL cholesterol.
Hypercholesterolemia Also Called High Cholesterol Is The Presence Of High Levels Of Cholesterol In The Blood
Ldl is formed as vldl lipoproteins lose triglycerides through the action of lipoprotein lipase and become smaller and denser, containing a higher proportion of cholesterol. They are packed between adjacent phospholipid molecules to maintain the stability of the oil/water interface 40. Read about the causes and what is lipoprotein? Lipoproteins are part of the innate immune system. Lipoproteins are a mesh of proteins and fats that help carry cholesterol in the blood. It contains ldl and a protein called apolipoprotein . Hdl is produced in the liver and intestine and acts like a scavenger of cholesterol. There are five main classes of lipoproteins:chylomicrons.very low density lipoproteins intermediate density lipoproteins low density lipoproteins high density lipoproteins read ldl has the highestpercentage of cholesterol plus cholesteryl esters. They are the densest because they contain the highest proportion of protein. Free cholesterol plays an important role in maintaining the structure of lipoproteins. 1) to describe the steps of the exogenous and endogenous cholesterol transport pathways 2) to recall which lipoproteins contains the highest. It is sometimes called the good cholesterol because it carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. Cholesterol has four primary functions, without which we could not.
What Is A Lipoprotein Blood Test
A lipoprotein test measures the level of lipoprotein in your blood. Lipoproteins are substances made of protein and fat that carry cholesterol through your bloodstream. There are two main types of cholesterol:
- High-density lipoprotein , or “good” cholesterol
- Low-density lipoprotein , or “bad” cholesterol.
Lipoprotein is a type of LDL cholesterol. A high level of lipoprotein may mean you are at risk for heart disease.
Other names: cholesterol Lp, Lp
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Measuring Hdl Concentration And Sizes
As technology has reduced costs and clinical trials have continued to demonstrate the importance of HDL, methods for directly measuring HDL concentrations and size at lower costs have become more widely available and increasingly regarded as important for assessing individual risk for progressive arterial disease and treatment methods.
How Do I Know What My Hdl Level Is
A blood test can measure your cholesterol levels, including HDL. When and how often you should get this test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:
For people who are age 19 or younger::
- The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
- Children should have the test again every 5 years
- Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke
For people who are age 20 or older::
- Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
- Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years
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Myth: I Would Be Able To Feel It If I Had High Cholesterol
Fact: High cholesterol usually has no signs or symptoms. You may not know you have unhealthy cholesterol levels until it is too latewhen you have a heart attack or stroke. Thats why its so important to get your cholesterol levels checked at least every 5 years.1,2 Learn more about getting your cholesterol checked.
Occasionally, some people develop yellowish growths on their skin called xanthomas, which are cholesterol-rich deposits. People with xanthomas may have high cholesterol levels.
Which Of The Following Lipoproteins Contains The Highest Percentage Of Cholesterol Quizlet
Which of the following lipoproteins contains the highest percentage of cholesterol quizlet? -Of the four main classes of lipoproteins, chylomicrons contain the highest percentage of triacylglycerols. -The four main classes of lipoproteins are chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL and HDL. -Of the four main classes of lipoproteins, LDL contains the highest percentage of cholesteryl esters. You just studied 32 terms!
What contains the highest percentage of cholesterol? Foods that contain cholesterol and are high in saturated fat. Full fat dairy foods such as milk, cheese, yogurt and cream. Animal fats, such as butter, ghee, margarines and spreads made from animal fats, lard, suet and dripping. Fatty meat and processed meat products such as sausages.
Which of the following types of lipoprotein contains the highest percentage of protein? HDL has the highest percentage of proteins.
Are bananas good for cholesterol? Fruits like avocados and apples, and citrus fruits like oranges and bananas can help lower cholesterol. Cholesterol is a material produced in the liver that your body needs to make hormones, vitamin D and other substances. Two types are in the body: Good and bad.
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Estimation Of Ldl Particles Via Cholesterol Content
Chemical measures of lipid concentration have long been the most-used clinical measurement, not because they have the best correlation with individual outcome, but because these lab methods are less expensive and more widely available.
The lipid profile does not measure LDL particles. It only estimates them using the Friedewald equationby subtracting the amount of cholesterol associated with other particles, such as HDL and VLDL, assuming a prolonged fasting state, etc.:
- L T
- where H is HDL cholesterol, L is LDL cholesterol, C is total cholesterol, T are triglycerides, and k is 0.20 if the quantities are measured in mg/dl and 0.45 if in mmol/l.
There are limitations to this method, most notably that samples must be obtained after a 12 to 14 h fast and that LDL-C cannot be calculated if plasma triglyceride is > 4.52 mmol/L . Even at triglyceride levels 2.5 to 4.5 mmol/L, this formula is considered inaccurate. If both total cholesterol and triglyceride levels are elevated then a modified formula, with quantities in mg/dl, may be used
- L T
This formula provides an approximation with fair accuracy for most people, assuming the blood was drawn after fasting for about 14 hours or longer, but does not reveal the actual LDL particle concentration because the percentage of fat molecules within the LDL particles which are cholesterol varies, as much as 8:1 variation.
What Do The Results Mean
A high lipoprotein level may mean you are at risk for heart disease. There are no specific treatments to lower lipoprotein . Your level of lipoprotein is determined by your genes and is not affected by your lifestyle or by most medicines. But if your test results show a high level of lipoprotein , your health care provider may make recommendations to reduce other risk factors that can lead to heart disease. These may include medicines or lifestyle changes such as:
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This Is What We Are Told As The Cause Of Heart Disease
We are always told that eating saturated fats and cholesterol rich foods is what causes heart disease. It is believed that by recommending the people to eat less saturated fats and cholesterol it is possible to reverse the epidemic of heart disease. Have a look at Dietary Goals for the United States in order to reverse the epidemic of heart disease in the country. In 1977, an American committee of the U.S. senate led by George McGovern published the first Dietary Goals for The United States in order to reverse the epidemic of heart disease in the country.
According to their guidelines the cause and solution for heart disease is as follows:
High cholesterol is a significant risk factor for coronary heart disease and a cause of heart attacks. LDL cholesterol deposits in blood vessels forming plaques and cause restriction of blood flow. The cause of high cholesterol is eating cholesterol rich diet and eating saturated fats foods.
Eat less saturated fat and cholesterol Eat less refined and processed sugars Eat a low-fat high carb diet
In spite of these guidelines the cardiovascular diseases are increasing year after year. Since then, many randomized controlled trials have shown that this dietary approach doesnt really work for the people it was meant to help.
Causes Of High Lipoprotein Levels
Lipoprotein levels above 75 nmol/L or 30 mg/dL indicate an increased risk of hardening of the arteries , heart disease, and stroke. Your doctor will interpret this test, taking into account your medical history, symptoms, and other tests.
Causes shown below have been associated with high Lp. Work with your doctor or another health care professional to get an accurate diagnosis.
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Lipoproteins Cholesterol And Atherosclerosis
Cholesterol is a building block of the outer layer of cell membranes. Cholesterol is a waxy steroid of fat that is produced in the liver or intestines. It is used to produce hormones and cell membranes and is transported in the blood plasma of all mammals . As an essential structural component of mammalian cell membranes, it is required to establish proper membrane permeability and fluidity. In addition, cholesterol is an important component for the manufacture of bile acids, steroid hormones, and vitamin D. Cholesterol is the principal sterol synthesized by animals however, small quantities can be synthesized in other eukaryotes such as plants and fungi. It is almost completely absent among prokaryotes including bacteria .
Owing to its limited solubility in water, cholesterol is transported in blood in lipoproteins. The lipoprotein outer layer is formed of amphiphilic cholesterol and phospholipid molecules, studded with proteins, surrounding a hydrophobic core of triglycerides and cholesterol esters. Lipoproteins are specifically targeted to cells by distinct apolipoproteins on their surface that bind to specific receptors. Low density lipoprotein contains the highest level of cholesterol. LDL receptors in peripheral tissues bind LDL, triggering its endocytosis, lysosomal targeting and hydrolysis. When cells have abundant cholesterol, LDL receptor synthesis is inhibited by the sterol regulatory element binding proteins pathway .
What Are Hdl And Ldl
HDL and LDL are two types of lipoproteins.They are a combination of fat and protein. The lipids need to be attached to the proteins so they can move through the blood. HDL and LDL have different purposes:
- HDL stands for high-density lipoproteins. It is sometimes called the Ã¢goodÃ¢ cholesterol because it carries cholesterol from other parts of your body back to your liver. Your liver then removes the cholesterol from your body.
- LDL stands for low-density lipoproteins. It is sometimes called the Ã¢badÃ¢ cholesterol because a high LDL level leads to a buildup of cholesterol in your arteries.
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Function Of Cells In The Body
Our body contains trillions of tiny cells and each cell works independently performing several biochemical reactions.
The cells can perform a multitude of different functions:
White blood cells produce antibodies Heart muscle cells generate and conduct biological electricity for the heartbeat.
The macronutrients like carbohydrates, fats and proteins provide the fuel and the micronutrients act as the biocatalysts.
A number of biocatalysts are present in the body that are required to perform multitude of biochemical reactions. The important biocatalysts are:
- Trace Minerals
Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein
This protein is synthesized in the liver and in the plasma mediates the transfer of cholesterol esters from HDL to VLDL, chylomicrons, and LDL and the transfer of triglycerides from VLDL and chylomicrons to HDL. Inhibition of CETP activity leads to an increase in HDL cholesterol and a decrease in LDL cholesterol.
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Role In The Innate Immune System
LDL interfere with the quorum sensing system that upregulates genes required for invasive Staphylococcus aureus infection. The mechanism of antagonism entails binding apolipoprotein B to a S. aureusautoinducer pheromone, preventing signaling through its receptor. Mice deficient in apolipoprotein B are more susceptible to invasive bacterial infection.
Confounders And Cardiovascular Disease Ascertainment
Well-validated instruments were used: alcohol , physical activity . Height and weight, waist and hip circumference were measured using standard techniques . Smoking and chronic disease were ascertained by self-report. Self-report of heart disease was assessed at every timepoint by asking Have you ever been told by a health professional that you have heart disease?. As reported previously, using longitudinal data from MMAS, we have found the concordance of self-report data compared to medical report and National Death Index data combined was approximately 80%. This is comparable to the concordance rate between self-report and medical records data reported in the published literature for ischemic heart disease and cardiovascular conditions in general .
To determine prescription and non-prescription medication use, the interviewer copied the medication name from the label and queried the reason for use. Medications were coded using a system based on the American Hospital Formulary Service, as described previously .
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Cholesterol Ratio: Range For Men And Women
Women, in general, have higher HDL levels as compared to men. This implies that their cholesterol ratio is naturally lower. The recommended cholesterol ratio for women is 3.3. Meanwhile, a ratio greater 4.4 could imply a risk of cardiovascular diseases. This risk doubles when this ratio goes up to 7.
On the other hand, the recommended cholesterol ratio for men is 3.4. Meanwhile, a ratio greater 5 could imply a risk of cardiovascular diseases. This risk doubles when this ratio goes up to 9.6.
Where Is Cholesterol Made
Some of our cholesterol comes from the food we eat, but most is made in the liver in a complex 37-step process.
The lipoproteins are then released into the blood and carried around the body to wherever they’re needed.
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Which Of The Following Types Of Lipoprotein Contains The Highest Percentage Of Protein
lipoproteincontains the highest proportion of protein
Regarding this, which lipoprotein has the highest cholesterol content?
high density lipoprotein
Secondly, which is the most effective way to raise HDL cholesterol? Here are nine healthy ways to raise your âgoodâ HDL cholesterol.
- Consume olive oil.
- Follow a low-carb or ketogenic diet.
- Exercise regularly.
- Add coconut oil to your diet.
- Stop smoking.
Similarly one may ask, which lipoprotein contains the most triglycerides?
Which lipoprotein has the least amount of protein?
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How Quickly Does Cholesterol Levels Change
Cholesterol drops over time, not suddenly, after a few days of healthier living. There is no set period in which cholesterol is guaranteed to drop. Cholesterol-lowering drugs usually produce a change in LDL within 6 to 8 weeks. It is possible for lifestyle changes to change cholesterol levels within weeks.
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Elevated Cholesterol And Lipoprotein Modification
Elevated serum concentrations of cholesterol and its lipoprotein carriers are associated with ASCVD. In particular, cholesterol carried by apoB-containing lipoproteins, collectively referred to as nonhigh-density lipoproteins , are considered atherogenic.20 These include low-density , intermediate-density , verylow-density lipoproteins , and lipoprotein, plus chylomicrons and their remnants in the postprandial state. Elevation of apoB-containing lipoproteins is directly associated with atherosclerosis and contributes to cardiovascular events. Infiltration of the arterial intima by these lipoprotein particles causes intimal thickeninga marker of subclinical atherosclerosisand low-grade inflammation.21
LDL-C modification, particularly by oxidation, contributes importantly to atherogenesis. Intrinsic factors such as antioxidant content , fatty acid composition, particle size , and extrinsic factors, including the surrounding pH, local antioxidant concentrations, and transition metal availability, increase the susceptibility of LDL-C to oxidation.22
Anum Saeed MD, Ã¢Â¦ Peter H. Jones MD, in, 2019
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Nutrient Deficiency & Heart Disease True Cause
Deficiency of nutrients weakens arteries and promotes atherosclerosis.
Deficiency of certain nutrients like vitamin c, lysine and proline, weaken the arteries, trigger formation of repair molecules like lipoprotein and promote atherosclerosis. As the atherosclerosis progresses heart disease develops.
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