Additional Lipid Markers Of Cvd Risk
The TC/HDL-C ratio is an index of CVD risk;;and is considered to be a traditional determinant or risk marker when considering the need for lipid-lowering therapy. An elevated TC/HDL-C ratio is usually associated with a low HDL-C and/or elevated TG, both of which are commonly seen in individuals with diabetes and often in individuals without diabetes, even in the face of an optimal LDL-C;. The elevated TC/HDL-C ratio is considered to represent a marker of lipid-derived, residual risk in treated patients, but it is not considered a target of therapy. Even so, this dyslipidemia is relatively responsive to healthy behaviour interventions and improvements in glycemic control, interventions that should be considered in all instances anyway.
Evidence suggests that fibrate therapy may help reduce the microvascular complications associated with diabetes , and it appears as if these beneficial effects are not solely due to the lipid changes induced by this drug class;. For example, the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes study found that long-term treatment with fenofibrate reduced albuminuria and slowed estimated glomerular filtration rate loss over 5 years, despite initially and reversibly increasing plasma creatinine;. Furthermore, if residual hyper-TG is high enough to impart a risk of pancreatitis, fibrates may be warranted.
How Do I Minimize My Risk Of Developing High Levels Of Bad Cholesterol
Health Canada advises that you maintain a healthy weight, get at least 30 minutes of exercise a day and stay away from cigarettes. It also recommends reducing the total fat in your diet by:;
- Choosing leaner meats, poultry and fish.
- Reducing meat portions to the size of a deck of cards.
- Eating no more than one egg yolk a week.;
- Choosing skim dairy products such as skim milk, cottage cheese with 1 per cent M.F. on the label and yogurt with less than 1 per cent M.F. on the label.
- Choosing cheeses with less than 15% M.F. on the label.;
- Cooking with little or no fat.
- Using vegetable oils such as olive, canola, corn, sunflower, safflower, and peanut oil in small quantities.;
- Avoiding store-bought baked goods such as croissants, muffins and doughnuts.
Health Canada also recommends you eat more vegetables, fruit, whole grains such as oats or barley, and legumes such as dried peas, dried beans and lentils.
Data Cleaning Query Resolution And Clinical Monitoring
Data in the central database were verified through logic and edit checking. Any answer in the database that was identified as physiologically unlikely or outside the entry criteria prompted an electronic query. The appropriate investigative site was contacted to resolve each query, and the database was changed to reflect the corrected information. Data collection procedures were verified by a 100% data field audit performed at 42 of the sites.
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What Does The Test Measure
An LDL cholesterol test checks the amount of LDL cholesterol in the blood. Results are typically measured in milligrams per deciliter .
Cholesterol is a fatty substance your body naturally creates to help in digesting food, creating hormones, and making vitamin D. Cholesterol is made up of different types of lipoproteins, which are a combination of fats, also known as lipids, and proteins. Lipids connect to proteins to be able to move through your blood. Cholesterol testing often measures different substances in the blood:
- High-density cholesterol: HDL carries cholesterol from other parts of your body to your liver for processing and removal and is considered the good cholesterol.
- Low-density cholesterol: LDL is known as the bad cholesterol because too much of it in your blood can lead to a buildup of plaque in your arteries, putting you at risk of heart disease, diabetes, or stroke.
- Triglycerides:;Triglycerides are fats created by the foods we eat. These fats are stored until your body needs energy. Triglycerides are processed by your body when it needs energy. Having high levels of triglycerides can lead to coronary heart disease and other cardiovascular issues.
- Very low-density cholesterol: VLDL is similar to LDL cholesterol but carries triglycerides through the blood. VLDL can contribute to plaque buildup and is considered a bad cholesterol.
What Is High Cholesterol
Cholesterol levels are measured in millimoles per litre in the UK. The government recommends the general population aims for under 5 mmol/L of total cholesterol levels, but three out of five adults in the UK have levels of 5 mmol/L or above.
Your GP will explain your cholesterol readings and what they mean in terms of your future health – mainly whether you have a high, moderate or low risk of developing cardiovascular disease within the next 10 years.
After the test, you may just be given the TC figure, but ask your surgery for your full results and keep a note of them to compare against future checks.
Heres a quick guide to understanding your cholesterol levels.
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Who Should Be Screened For High Cholesterol Levels
The 2003 Recommendations for Dyslipidemia Management in Canada says that, although any person can be screened for high cholesterol levels, screening for high cholesterol is specifically recommended for:
- men over 40 years of age
- women who are postmenopausal or over 50 years of age
- people who have diabetes
- people who have risk factors such as hypertension, smoking or abdominal obesity
- people who have a strong family history of premature heart disease or stroke
- people who have physical signs of high cholesterol
- people who have evidence of vascular or coronary artery disease .
Children And Cholesterol Testing
For most children, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute recommends one cholesterol screening test between the ages of 9 and 11, and another cholesterol screening test between the ages of 17 and 21.
If your child has a family history of early-onset heart disease or a personal history of obesity or diabetes, your doctor might recommend earlier or more-frequent cholesterol testing.
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Are There Foods That Actually Lower Cholesterol
Yes. A diet high in fibre may help lower LDL cholesterol levels significantly. But it has to be soluble fibre.
Oatmeal, oat bran, kidney beans, brussel sprouts, apples, pears, psyllium, barley and prunes all contain soluble fibre. Soluble fiber appears to reduce the amount of cholesterol your body absorbs from the food you eat.
As well, walnuts and almonds also appear to help. Both are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids and help keep blood vessels healthy and elastic. Both are also high in calories, so it doesn’t take much to do the trick. Too many nuts could lead to weight gain putting you at risk, once again, for developing high cholesterol levels.
Fish especially those high in omega-3 fatty acids also seem to help.
If diet and lifestyle changes aren’t enough, what treatments are available?
Your doctor will write you a prescription for one of a class of drugs called “statins.” First approved for use more than 20 years ago, statins lower levels of LDL cholesterol. Statins are the best selling medication in the world, with an international market worth about $30 billion a year.
But 60 per cent of patients who lower their LDL levels will still get heart disease.
What You Can Do
When you make the appointment, ask if there’s anything you need to do in advance. For a cholesterol test, you’ll likely have to avoid eating or drinking anything other than water for nine to 12 hours before the blood sample is taken.
Make a list of:
- Your symptoms, if any
- Key personal information, including a family history of high cholesterol, coronary artery disease, strokes, high blood pressure or diabetes
- All medications, vitamins or supplements you take, including doses
- Questions to ask your doctor
For high cholesterol, some basic questions to ask your doctor include:
- What tests do I need?
- What’s the best treatment?
- How often do I need a cholesterol test?
- Are there brochures or other printed material that I can have? What websites do you recommend?
Don’t hesitate to ask other questions.
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Appendixcomplete List Of Chms Laboratory Tests
This appendix lists all of the blood and urine sample tests conducted by the CHMS. Not all of these tests will be included in the final report of your test results. Whether or not a result is included in the final report depends on your age group and sex, whether you were fasting prior to your visit to the mobile clinic, whether the test is being conducted on a subsample of survey participants, and whether there are national guidelines or reference ranges for the test.
Whole blood, plasma, and serum tests
- high sensitivity C-reactive protein
- low density lipoprotein-cholesterol
- high density lipoprotein-cholesterol
- total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio
- C-telopeptide of collagen type I
- parathyroid hormone
- procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide
How Does This Cholesterol Calculator Work
The rules for converting cholesterol units of TC , HDL and LDL are the same:
- To get from mmol/L to mg/dL, you need to multiply by 38.67.
- To get from mg/dL to mmol/L multiply by 0.02586.
Conversion for TG is calculated differently:
- To get from mmol/L to mg/dL multiply by 88.57.
- To get from mg/dL to mmol/L multiply by 0.01129.
It’s possible that you’ve also had your glucose level assessed. If you need a hand with glucose units, see our glucose unit converter!
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If I Have Too Much Cholesterol And Triglycerides In My Blood What Happens
Some people have too much cholesterol in their blood. This condition is called hypercholesterolemia or dyslipidemia. It is a major risk factor for coronary artery disease, which is a condition that can lead to heart attacks and stroke.
When there is too much cholesterol in the blood, the excess can settle on the inside of the blood vessels. Over time, fatty deposits called plaque build up in the blood vessels. Plaque clogs the blood vessels so that blood can’t flow properly. When blood flow is obstructed, the chance of a heart attack or stroke increases. High triglyceride levels increase the tendency for the blood to clot. Blood clots can also obstruct blood flow and the risk of a heart attack or stroke goes up.
Cholesterol Levels In Adults
Cholesterol levels are measured in milligrams per deciliter . When you get the results of your test, you will see this measurement. You want to pay attention to the following guidelines for healthy cholesterol levels and talk to your doctor if you have questions.
Healthy cholesterol levels for men who are 20 years old and older:;
- Total cholesterol: 125 mg/dL to 200 mg/dL
- Triglycerides: less than 150 mg/dL
- HDL: 40 mg/dL or higher
- LDL: less than 100 mg/dL
- Non-HDL: less than 130 mg/dL
Healthy cholesterol levels for women who are 20 years old and older:;
- Total cholesterol: 125 mg/dL to 200 mg/dL
- Triglycerides: less than 150 mg/dL
- HDL: 50 mg/dL or higher
- LDL: less than 100 mg/dL
- Non-HDL: less than 130 mg/dL
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Information For Parents And Guardians Of Children And Youth 17 And Under
Although the information provided throughout this document also applies to children and youth participants, this section is intended to provide additional information specific to their participation.
Youth privacy and confidentiality
There is a need to collect the most accurate information possible from CHMS participants as it can lead to better health-care services, programs and policies. Participants who know that someone in the household can hear their answers when taking part in the interview may feel uncomfortable, and this could affect the quality of their answers. This is why we prefer to complete most of the interview with youths 12 years of age or older privately.
We would like to inform parents or guardians of adolescents 14 to 17 years of age that, if their adolescent consents to participate in the survey and to receive his or her results, we will send them directly to them. The results for participants under 14 years of age will be sent to the parent or guardian.
Visit to the mobile clinic
At the clinic, skilled health professionals will take direct physical measures that will allow us to assess your child’s health. You can stay with your child during the clinic visit if you wish.
Children over 6 years of age will do most of the physical measurement tests, while children aged 3;to 5 are only asked to take part in the body composition tests.
Linking And Sharing Your Data
During the household interview and the clinic visit, we will inform you about the possibility of linkages between the information you provided to the CHMS and other surveys or administrative data sources.
Data linkage, also known as record linkage, combines information on survey participants from at least two different sources. This is done only for statistical and research purposes.
If you agree to data linkage, we will:
- ask you for your health card number to help with the linkage process
- combine the information we collected during this survey with some of the information that your provincial health department, health registries or other recognized health organizations already have on file about you
- remove personal identifiers such as your name, street address and health card number from the linked file as soon as the linkage is complete
- destroy all linkage files at the end of the project for which the linkage was done.
Only Statistics Canada employees in Statistics Canada offices will perform data linkage. All linked data will remain confidential under the Statistics Act. We will not provide any information about you to the ministry of health in your province or to any other organization.
We will also ask whether you consent that the information you provide through the CHMS be shared with Health Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada . Data sharing enables us to reduce the number of times we have to survey Canadians.
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What Affects The Test
Many conditions can affect cholesterol and triglyceride levels, including:
- Medicines, such as diuretics, corticosteroids, male sex hormones , tranquillizers, estrogen, birth control pills, antibiotics, and niacin .
- Physical stress, such as infection, heart attack, surgery.
- Other conditions, such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or kidney or liver disease.
- Alcohol use disorder.
- Liver disease , malnutrition, or hyperthyroidism.
- Pregnancy. Values are the highest during the third trimester and usually return to the pre-pregnancy levels after delivery of the baby.
Your doctor will talk with you about any abnormal results that may be related to your other health problems.
What Is Total Cholesterol
When your cholesterol is checked, you get a number for total cholesterol, one for the HDL level, and one for the LDL level. Your total cholesterol will be more than the sum of the HDL and LDL numbers.
Either a high HDL number or a high LDL number can make your total cholesterol number high. If it’s high because of a high HDL number, your health is not necessarily in danger. However, if it’s high because your LDL cholesterol level is high, it’s important to talk with your doctor about your health .
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Healthy cholesterol levels are a key component of cardiovascular wellness. The American Heart Association recommends getting tested every four to six years beginning at age 20a blood lipid panel includes your total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein , low-density lipoprotein , and triglycerides. If you have cardiovascular disease or elevated risk, you may need more frequent testing. After age 40, your doctor would recommend testing based on your calculated risk of having a heart attack or stroke.
These regular check-ins can guide your doctor’s assessment of whether you need to make lifestyle adjustments or take medication to keep your blood cholesterol within a healthy range.
At-home testing kits can be handy for people diagnosed with high cholesterol who may want to test their blood more frequently.
While home cholesterol testing should not be used as a replacement for the comprehensive diagnostics provided by your physician, it can be an addition to a proactive health regimen.
Here are the best at-home cholesterol test kits that you can use in-between visits with your doctor.
Another Type Of Fat Found In The Blood Mainly From The Food We Eat
Whats healthy? Less than 1.7 mmol/L ideally on a fasting sample, or less than 2.3 mmol/L on a non-fasting sample.
What should I do? Very high triglyceride levels can cause a painful condition called pancreatitis. People can have raised levels for many reasons, but the most common reasons are lifestyle-related:
- Being apple-shaped .
- Developing or having type 2 diabetes.
Excessive alcohol consumption.
You can keep your triglyceride levels low by losing weight, being more active and eating sensibly, especially by cutting back on alcohol, sugary foods and saturated fats, and eating more fruits, vegetables, pulses and wholegrains.
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How Often Should I Get A Cholesterol Test
When and how often you should get a cholesterol test depends on your age, risk factors, and family history. The general recommendations are:
For people who are age 19 or younger:
- The first test should be between ages 9 to 11
- Children should have the test again every 5 years
- Some children may have this test starting at age 2 if there is a family history of high blood cholesterol, heart attack, or stroke
For people who are age 20 or older:
- Younger adults should have the test every 5 years
- Men ages 45 to 65 and women ages 55 to 65 should have it every 1 to 2 years