What Is A Healthy Blood Cholesterol Level
For people who have plaque in their arteries or who have other factors that put them at risk for cardiovascular disease, doctors recommend an ideal LDL level well below 70 mg/dl. For those without risk factors who have an LDL level at or above 190 mg/dl, the recommendation is to get this level down to below 100 mg/dl. People age 40 to 75 who are living with diabetes and whose LDL is at 70 or above may need medication.
Possible Side Effects & Medicine Interaction Of Licorice
Licorice is normally safe for most people when consumed a right dosage. You can even consume large dosages as medicine for a short period without any problems. However, it is not considering as safe when using high dosage for more than a month. Taking 30 grams or more of licorice daily for over a month may cause severe side effects; including elevated blood pressure, low level of potassium in the blood, weakness, and paralysis.
The active ingredient, glycyrrhiza, if taken in excess, can lead to pseudo-aldosteronism, which makes you overly sensitive to a hormone in your adrenal cortex. It leads to headaches, fatigue, high blood pressure, and even heart attacks.
Licorice had other side effects include tiredness, menstrual cycle problem in women, headache, sodium & water retention and decreased the desire to sex & erectile dysfunction in men.
Licorice may interact with some drugs used to slow down clotting, estrogen-containing drugs, and any drug that depletes the potassium level.
Direct Measurement Of Ldl Particle Concentrations
There are several competing methods for measurement of lipoprotein particle concentrations and size. The evidence is that the NMR methodology results in a 22-25% reduction in cardiovascular events within one year,contrary to the longstanding claims by many in the medical industry that the superiority over existing methods was weak, even by statements of some proponents.
Since the later 1990s, because of the development of NMR measurements, it has been possible to clinically measure lipoprotein particles at lower cost and higher accuracy. There are two other assays for LDL particles, however, like LDL-C, most only estimate LDL particle concentrations.
Direct LDL particle measurement by NMR was mentioned by the ADA and ACC, in a 28 March 2008 joint consensus statement, as having advantages for predicting individual risk of atherosclerosis disease events, but the statement noted that the test is less widely available, is more expensive ]. Debate continues that it is “…unclear whether LDL particle size measurements add value to measurement of LDL-particle concentration”, though outcomes have always tracked LDL particle, not LDL-C, concentrations.
The LDL particle concentrations are typically categorized by percentiles, <20%, 2050%, 50th80th%, 80th95% and >95% groups of the people participating and being tracked in the MESA trial, a medical research study sponsored by the United States National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute.
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Plasma Transport And Regulation Of Absorption
As an isolated molecule, cholesterol is only minimally soluble in water, or hydrophilic. Because of this, it dissolves in blood at exceedingly small concentrations. To be transported effectively, cholesterol is instead packaged within lipoproteins, complex discoidal particles with exterior amphiphilic proteins and lipids, whose outward-facing surfaces are water-soluble and inward-facing surfaces are lipid-soluble. This allows it to travel through the blood via emulsification. Unbound cholesterol, being amphipathic, is transported in the monolayer surface of the lipoprotein particle along with phospholipids and proteins. Cholesterol esters bound to fatty acid, on the other hand, are transported within the fatty hydrophilic core of the lipoprotein, along with triglyceride.
There are several types of lipoproteins in the blood. In order of increasing density, they are chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoprotein , intermediate-density lipoprotein , low-density lipoprotein , and high-density lipoprotein . Lower protein/lipid ratios make for less dense lipoproteins. Cholesterol within different lipoproteins is identical, although some is carried as its native “free” alcohol form , while others as fatty acyl esters, known also as cholesterol esters, within the particles.
What About Taking A Drug To Reduce My Cholesterol Level
If you stay on a low-fat diet for three to six months but still have not reached your goal, talk to your doctor about taking a medicine to reduce your cholesterol level.
When you take a cholesterol-lowering medicine, try to take it every day at about the same time. The drop in your cholesterol level caused by the drug lasts only one or two days after you stop taking the medicine.
Be sure to tell your doctor about any changes in your body that might be a side effect from the medicine. Also, talk to your doctor if you are worried about taking the medicine.
If the cholesterol medicine does not help reduce your LDL level enough after several months of treatment, your doctor may increase the dose. Changing to a different cholesterol medicine can also help.
Another way to make the cholesterol medicine work would be to add a second medicine to your treatment. Your doctor can try different treatments to find which one works for you. Even if you are taking a medicine to lower your cholesterol, it’s still important to follow a heart-healthy diet.
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Cholesterol Homeostasis In The Periphery And In The Brain
Cholesterol, an essential component of cellular membranes, helps maintain such physiologically important neuronal functions as neurotransmitter release, neurite outgrowth, and synaptic plasticity . Whether synthesized in brain or elsewhere throughout the body, cholesterol is the same chemically. However, there are differences in terms of its association with lipoprotein particles. Lipoproteins vary in size, lipid composition, and complex apolipoproteins that mediate their transport and uptake are different. In plasma, LDL is the main lipoprotein particle that mediates the transport of cholesterol and lipids into peripheral tissues, whereas HDL is the main lipoprotein particle that mediates the reverse cholesterol transport from peripheral tissues. LDL is a 20-25 nm sized particle that has the highest cholesterol content and apoB-100 is the exclusive apolipoprotein that mediates its transport and uptake. HDL, a protein-rich disc-shaped particles, is about 8-10 nm in size, has lower cholesterol content, and primary apolipoproteins that mediate its transport and uptake are apoA-I, apoC-I, apoCII and apoE.
Other Lipid Panel Components
Your test results might also include additional measurements:
- Non-HDL cholesterol: The number reflects your total cholesterol minus HDL.
- Very-low-density lipoprotein : It’s similar to LDL cholesterol, but while low-density lipoproteins mostly carry cholesterol to your tissues, very-low-density lipoproteins transport triglycerides.
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Put together, all these test measures give your doctor a detailed glimpse of your blood’s lipid content and thus your risk of restricted blood flow and heart disease.
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High Ldl Cholesterol Diagnosis
A blood test can check your LDL, HDL, and total cholesterol levels. It also measures triglycerides, a type of fat that stores extra energy from your diet. High triglyceride levels can make you more likely to have heart problems.
Lower numbers are better when it comes to LDL cholesterol test results. The general guidelines for adults in the United States are:
- Less than 100 milligrams per deciliter : Optimal
- 100-129 mg/dL: Near or above optimal
- 130-159 mg/dL: Borderline high
- 160-189 mg/dL: High
- 190 mg/dL and above: Very high
If you have a condition like heart disease or diabetes, your doctor might recommend an LDL target of 70 mg/dL or below.
You Dont Need To Avoid Eggs And Seafood
Some foods are high in cholesterol but are fine to eat in moderation, as long as your overall diet is low in saturated fats. For example:
- Egg yolks a single egg yolk contains 200250 mg of cholesterol, which is almost the uppermost recommended daily intake . However, reducing egg intake is probably not important for healthy people with normal blood cholesterol levels.
- Seafood prawns and seafood contain some cholesterol, but they are low in saturated fat and also contain healthy omega-3 fatty acids. Seafood is a healthy food and should not be avoided just because it contains cholesterol. However, avoid fried and battered seafood.
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Estimation Of Ldl Particles Via Cholesterol Content
Chemical measures of lipid concentration have long been the most-used clinical measurement, not because they have the best correlation with individual outcome, but because these lab methods are less expensive and more widely available.
The lipid profile does not measure LDL particles. It only estimates them using the Friedewald equationby subtracting the amount of cholesterol associated with other particles, such as HDL and VLDL, assuming a prolonged fasting state, etc.:
- L T
- where H is HDL cholesterol, L is LDL cholesterol, C is total cholesterol, T are triglycerides, and k is 0.20 if the quantities are measured in mg/dl and 0.45 if in mmol/l.
There are limitations to this method, most notably that samples must be obtained after a 12 to 14 h fast and that LDL-C cannot be calculated if plasma triglyceride is >4.52;mmol/L . Even at triglyceride levels 2.5 to 4.5;mmol/L, this formula is considered inaccurate. If both total cholesterol and triglyceride levels are elevated then a modified formula, with quantities in mg/dl, may be used
- L T
This formula provides an approximation with fair accuracy for most people, assuming the blood was drawn after fasting for about 14 hours or longer, but does not reveal the actual LDL particle concentration because the percentage of fat molecules within the LDL particles which are cholesterol varies, as much as 8:1 variation.
Why Is Ldl Called The Bad Cholesterol
LDL is called the bad cholesterol because it can cause a buildup of fat and cholesterol in the walls of your blood vessels. If your LDL has been high for many years, this buildup can clog the arteries to your heart or brain. The arteries may be partly or totally blocked. The medical word for this blockage is atherosclerosis. Clogged arteries to the heart can cause a heart attack. Clogged arteries to the brain can cause a stroke.
Reducing The Formation Of Small Dense Ldl
You can do some things to reduce the formation of small, dense LDL in the blood. Although you cannot do much if you have inherited raised small, dense LDL, you can make some changes to your lifestyle to lower your chances of developing this particle. Ways you can lower your risk of small, dense LDL cholesterol formation include:
- Lowering your carbohydrate intakeespecially refined sugars
- Lower your intake of;saturated fat;and omit;trans fats from your diet
- If you have been diagnosed with diabetes, keep it under control by taking medication and following a healthy diet
- Lose weight if you are obese. This can be accomplished by following a healthy diet and moderate physical activity.
- If you are already taking medication to lower your cholesterol levels, some of these drugs may also reduce the formation of small, dense LDL. These would include;fibrates;and;statins.
- Know your risks of having cardiovascular disease in the future. Do you have a parent that had a heart attack at 40? If so, you may be at risk of developing heart disease at a young age, too.
Good Cholesterol Is A Complex Measure
While the cholesterol-carrying function of HDL is important, it’s not the only way HDL helps your body function. HDL also alters the chemical composition of LDL, preventing it from becoming oxidized, Harvard Medical School reported in 2019. That prevents damage to the arteries and lowers inflammation. ;
In general, having more HDL is often associated with a lower risk of heart disease. But too much HDL can also cause an inflammatory response in your immune cells, according to a 2016 study in the journal Cell Metabolism. That response can counter its usual anti-inflammatory properties. The upshot is that HDL’s function isn’t so clear-cut as being “good,” rather, its benefit to the body depends on a balance between its positive and negative effects.;
To further complicate matters, a separate report from Harvard Medical School suggests that HDL might, in the end, be more of a “bystander” than an agent of good. It might simply be a “marker” of your cholesterol level, rather than having a significant influence on the body.;
In fact, the American Heart Association no longer recommends a specific range for HDL and LDL cholesterol instead, they look at cholesterol as part of your entire heart health.;
The takeaway, if you’re managing cholesterol, is not to put too much stake into one number. Healthy diet, exercise, and other lifestyle changes can boost your heart health regardless of the precise amount of “good” cholesterol in your body.;
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What Foods Help Lower Ldl Cholesterol
A heart-healthy diet that is high in fiber and plant-based foods can help lower total and LDL cholesterol levels. Mainly vegetarian or vegan diets have been shown to reduce cholesterol levels and the risk of blocked arteries. Foods that can help lower LDL cholesterol include:
If diet, exercise, and lifestyle changes are not enough to lower your cholesterol to healthy ranges, then your doctor may prescribe medication. The type of cholesterol lowering medication depends upon your levels of LDL, HDL, and triglycerides; and any current medications you are currently taking, and your overall health.
Medication options to reduce cholesterol include statins, niacin, and fibric acid agents . Your doctor may prescribe one or several types of these drugs to reduce your cholesterol levels to a healthy range.
Ldl Metabolism In Cetp Deficiency
LDL-C consists largely of CE, which is esterified by LCAT in HDL. CETP-mediated CE transferred from HDL to VLDL is a major determinant of LDL-C, because LDL-C tends to be lower in complete CETP deficiency. However, a reciprocal transfer of TG from VLDL to HDL is diminished in CETP deficiency, consistent with findings of TG-rich VLDL and TG-poor HDL in CETP deficiency . The CETP-deficient homozygotes had polydisperse LDL subclasses from IDL-like particles to small and dense LDL on a native polyacrylamide gel, suggesting that complete CETP deficiency would inhibit interconversion of lipids between LDL subclasses . In contrast, partial CETP deficiency increased LDL size. Heteroexchange of CE and TG between VLDL and LDL via HDL leads to formation of TG-rich LDL, which consequently becomes small and dense LDL after lipolysis of the core TG. Thus, decreased formation of TG-rich LDL is expected in heterozygous CETP deficiency, resulting in increases in relatively larger LDL subclasses.
Ozlem Bilen, … Vijay Nambi, in, 2018
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Your Cholesterol Test Results
Once you’ve had your test, what do the numbers mean?
For total cholesterol:
- 200 milligrams per deciliter or less is normal.
- 201 to 240 mg/dL is borderline.
- More than 240 mg/dL is high.
For HDL , more is better:
- 60 mg/dL or higher is good — it protects against heart disease.
- 40 to 59 mg/dL is OK.
- Less than 40 mg/dL is low, raising your chance of heart disease.
For LDL , lower is better:
- Less than 100 mg/dL is ideal.
- 100 to 129 mg/dL can be good, depending on your health.
- 130 to 159 mg/dL is borderline high.
- 160 to 189 mg/dL is high.
- 190 mg/dL or more is very high.
For triglycerides, lower is better:
- 150 mg/dL or less may be the goal your doctor recommends, though the American Heart Association suggests that a lower level is best for health.
- 151 to 200 mg/dL means youâre on your way to a higher risk for heart disease.
- More than 200 mg/dL means you have a higher risk of heart disease.
Your doctor will consider your overall likelihood of heart disease to set your personal LDL goal. For people who are at higher risk of heart disease or who already have it, your LDL should be less than 100 mg/dL.
If you have a moderately high chance of heart disease, an LDL less than 130 mg/dL is your target. If your risk of heart problems is fairly low, less than 160 mg/dL is probably fine.
Scientific Evidence For Licorice As Natural Cholesterol Herb
A study with a title “ANTIDYSLIPIDAEMIC ACTIVITY OF GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA IN HIGH FRUCTOSE DIET-INDUCED DSYSLIPIDAEMIC SYRIAN GOLDEN HAMSTERS” published in Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, 2009 / 24 404-409. A result indicates there is an increase in HDL cholesterol level and a decrease in triglyceride, and LDL cholesterol levels.
Another study with the title “Antiatherosclerotic effects of licorice extract supplementation on hypercholesterolemic patients: increased resistance of LDL to atherogenic modifications, reduced plasma lipid levels and decreased systolic blood pressure” published by Nutrition. 2002 Mar;18:268-73. The result shows the dietary consumption of licorice-root extract by hypercholesterolemic patients may act as a moderate hypocholesterolemic nutrient and a potent antioxidant agent and, hence against cardiovascular disease.
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Cholesterol Levels In Men
Younger men tend to have higher total cholesterol numbers than women. This changes after women go through menopause, which tends to raise women’s cholesterol levels. In general, men and women have very similar target cholesterol levels. The one difference: men have a slightly lower HDL target of 40 mg/dl.