May Help Lower Cholesterol Levels
Whether you get it from your diet or a supplement, omega-3 fatty acids may help move the meter when it comes to your total cholesterol.
In a December 2017 study published in Nutrition & Diabetes, study authors examined the lipid profiles of patients with hyperlipidemia another name for high cholesterol who either took a fish oil supplement or consumed fish twice a week for eight weeks.
The result? All of the participants’ total cholesterol and triglyceride levels were “reduced significantly” at the end of the period.
Plasma Cholesterol Vs Lipoprotein Cholesterol
A 1986 study published in The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition provided support for the benefits of fish oil omega-3 fatty acids even when combined with high cholesterol intake.
The study involved 6 participants tested with 3 diets. The participants were first placed on a diet providing 710 mg/day of cholesterol. Thereafter, they ate a diet with lower cholesterol content along with 40 g/day of fish oil. Finally, they took the same fish oil supplement and an egg yolk diet with high cholesterol content .
The results of the study showed that switching from a high-cholesterol diet to a low-cholesterol diet plus fish oil supplement reduced cholesterol and triglyceride levels.
The dietary change and fish oil supplementation lowered VLDL, LDL, HDL, and triglyceride levels as well as the level of apoproteins A1 and B.
When the study participants were switched back to a high-cholesterol diet plus fish oil supplement, only plasma cholesterol rose. There was no significant increase in lipoprotein cholesterol or apoprotein levels.
These results showed that even though fish oil supplements may not reduce the amount of cholesterol in the plasma, it can reduce the amount of cholesterol carried by lipoproteins . Since lipoprotein cholesterols are the determinant of cardiovascular health, fish oil can improve cardiovascular health even when plasma measurements indicate it does not lower cholesterol levels.
Fo Effects On Plasma Tg
Omega-3 FAs have long been known to lower plasma TG along with variety of other drugs such as fibrates, statins, thiazolidinediones, niacin, and metformin. Although the TG-lowering effects of FO are not evident at intakes typical of Western diets they manifest at pharmacologic doses . This is similar to another dietary component, niacin , that is also lipid-lowering at supra-nutritional intakes . The pharmaceutical preparation of omega-3 acid FAs provides EPA and DHA as acid ethyl esters, and the approved dose is 4, 1-g capsules per day which provides 1,860 mg of EPA and 1,500 mg of DHA for a total of 3.4 g omega-3 FAs/day. The TG-lowering effect of EPA+DHA has been demonstrated in numerous trials and 3-4 g/day of omega-3 FAs decrease plasma TG by about 30% . The effect is dose dependent with the minimal effective dose being > 2 g/day . EPA and DHA appear to be equally potent in lowering plasma TG and are effective in multiple settings including type II diabetes , metabolic syndrome , non-alcoholic fatty liver disease , HIV-dyslipidemida , nephrotic syndrome and hemodialysis populations.
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Increases Ldl Levels And Insulin Resistance
Fish oil seems to cause an increase in the levels of LDL or bad cholesterol in people with metabolic syndrome. People with metabolic syndrome are those who suffer from a number of conditions such as increased blood pressure, excess abdominal fat, increased blood sugar and cholesterol levels. They also showed increased insulin resistance as well.8 Some studies show that in people with high cholesterol, fish oil actually adversely affects the ratio of LDL to HDL and in some cases the triglyceride decrease is insignificant.9
May Improve Heart Health
Taking a fish oil supplement may help keep your ticker in tip-top shape, according to a body of research.
An August 2016 study in Circulation analyzed the effect that a daily dose of fish oil had on heart attack survivors over a six-month period. Researchers found that this treatment improved the function of the heart, reduced scarring in the undamaged tissue within the heart muscle and decreased biomarkers for inflammation.
Additionally, according to an in the same journal, adults with coronary heart disease who were prescribed a low-dose omega-3 fish oil supplement were 9 percent less likely to be hospitalized or die from the condition.
What’s more, a metaanalysis of 13 randomized controlled trials found that supplementing with seafood-based omega-3s is linked to a lower risk of having a heart attack or developing heart disease, per a September 2019 study in the Journal of the American Heart Association .
Supplementing with marine-based omega-3s was linked to lower triglycerides and larger HDL particles, which are better at removing unhealthy cholesterol and potentially preventing plaque buildup and heart disease, in a February 2020 JAHA study that included more than 26,000 people who identified as female.
Fish Oil and Arrhythmia
While studies have found fish oil omega3 supplements to lower risk for heart attack and death from coronary heart disease, some research raises concerns over fish oil’s connection to atrial fibrillation ,
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Interactions And Adverse Effects
Omega-3 fatty acids exert a dose-related effect on bleeding time; however, there are no documented cases of abnormal bleeding as a result of fish oil supplementation, even at high dosages and in combination with other anticoagulant medications.28 High dosages of fish oil may increase LDL cholesterol levels, but the clinical relevance of this finding remains unclear.14,15 Other potential side effects of omega-3 fatty acids include a fishy aftertaste and gastrointestinal disturbances, all of which appear to be dose-dependent.2
Significant amounts of methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, dioxins, and other environmental contaminants may be concentrated in certain species of fish, such as shark, swordfish, king mackerel, and tile-fish .29 In March 2004, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the Environmental Protection Agency issued a new statement29 advising women who may become pregnant, women who are pregnant, breastfeeding mothers, and young children to avoid eating some types of fish and to eat fish and shellfish that are lower in mercury. These recommendations29; are summarized in Table 3 . According to a recent survey,30 farmed salmon have significantly higher levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and other organochlorine contaminants than wild salmon. There is disagreement among researchers, however, about the amount of farmed salmon that is safe to eat. High-quality fish oil supplements usually do not contain these contaminants.
Summary Of Past Results
A 2006 paper published in the journal, Atherosclerosis, is the perfect summary of the body of scientific work done to investigate the effects of fish oil on cholesterols.
The authors of the paper did a systematic review of 21 such studies and found that fish oil consumption significantly reduced triglyceride levels, slightly increased HDL cholesterol, and moderately increased LDL cholesterol.
This review also found that high doses of fish oil supplements produced a greater reduction in triglyceride levels than low doses. Also, patients with very high triglyceride levels saw better results from fish oil supplementation.
While it would seem that fish oil did not improve HDL cholesterol nor reduce LDL cholesterol well enough, the authors of this review insisted that fish oil represents one of the effective natural supplements for reducing the risks of cardiovascular diseases.
How fish oil improves cardiovascular health without significantly lowering LDL cholesterol is discussed in the sections above.
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Does Fish Oil Raise Cholesterol
by Health Professional
Katie had an LDL of 87 mg/dl, HDL of 48 mg/dl, triglycerides of 201 mg/dl. By conventional standards, not too bad.
Reading about the heart health benefits of omega-3 fatty acids, Katie added fish oil. With the preparation she bought, 4000 mg per day provided 1200 mg the omega-3 fatty acids, EPA and DHA. Three months later her LDL was 118 mg/dl, HDL 54 mg/dl, triglycerides 92 mg/dl.
In other words, LDL cholesterol increased by 31 mg. What happened?
Several studies have, indeed, confirmed that fish oil raises LDL cholesterol, usually by 5-10 mg/dl. Occasionally, it may be as much as 20 or more milligrams, as in Katie’s case, enough for some people to be scared away from continuing this supplement.
Unfortunately, many physicians often assume that it’s the cholesterol content of fish oil capsules, or some vague, undesirable effect of fish oil. It’s nothing of the kind. And, if you were to rely on basic cholesterol values, it does indeed appear to be the case.
But it’s not.
Another factor: Conventional LDL cholesterol is a calculated value, not measured. The calculation for LDL is thrown off-sometimes considerably-by any reduction in HDL or rise in triglycerides from average values. In Katie’s case, the rise in HDL from 48 to 54 mg/dl along with the reduction in triglycerides from 201 to 92 mg/dl mean that calculated LDL has become more accurate and rises towards the true measured value. The actual rise in true LDL cholesterol may be small to none.
Should People With High Cholesterol Eat Fish And Seafood
For most people, it is beneficial to consume oily fish. The United States Department of Agricultures Dietary Guidelines for Americans 20202025 recommends that most adults eat at least 8 ounces of low-mercury fish and seafood each week.
On average, this gives someone 250 milligrams of DHA and EPA per day, though the exact amount will depend on the type of fish.
However, because some fish and seafood contains dietary cholesterol, people who struggle to control their cholesterol levels may need to be more cautious.
The United Kingdom charity, Heart UK, recommends that people with this concern speak with a dietitian about what is best for them.
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What You Can Do: Eat More Omega
I advise my patients to eat real fish instead of taking a supplement, says Dr. Martin. The quality of OTC fish-oil supplements can vary, he says, and some may contain unwanted ingredients or contaminants. Meanwhile, fish is a good source of lean protein. Dr. Martins recommendation: Aim to eat about four ounces of oily fish such as tuna, salmon, or anchovies twice a week. Handy fact: A four-ounce fish filet will be around the size of your palm.
May Worsen Insomnia Symptoms
Yes, better sleep is listed as one of the pros of fish oil, but some research suggests too much of the stuff could interfere with sleep.
A March 2015 study in Oxford Medical Case Reports reveals that, for one patient with a history of depression, taking a high dose of fish oil worsened symptoms of insomnia and anxiety. Still, more research is needed to determine fish oil’s general effect on sleep.
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Can I Use Vitamins To Lower My Cholesterol
The only vitamin that really lowers;cholesterol is;red yeast rice;at 1200 mg twice a day, according to Dr.;Cho.
The problem with red yeast rice is that it contains the same chemical compound as lovastatin, which means you would need to have your liver function monitored if you take it, she says. The Food and Drug Administration;hasnt approved;this supplement for medical use, so talk to your doctor before considering it.
All in all, you can lower your;cholesterol naturally. Diet should be the cornerstone of therapy and pills are a supplement, not a substitute, for a good diet. Always talk to your doctor before taking any new supplements.
Fish Oil Supplements Do Not Raise Ldl
Data from a predominantly male, normolipidemic, middle-aged cohort of 9,253 individuals indicated that fish oil supplementation was not associated with increases in LDL-cholesterol levels.
In addition, fish oil supplementation was associated with increases in red blood cell levels of DHA.
ncreases in the omega-3 index and in erythrocyte DHA over time were associated with modestly decreased levels of LDL-C, wrote the researchers, led by Dr William Harris from the Fatty Acid Research Institute .
These findings can reassure individuals who, in making healthier lifestyle choices, want to increase their intake of omega-3 fatty acids , that clinically significant adverse effects on LDL-C are unlikely to occur.
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Heart And Skeletal Muscle
Heart and skeletal muscles are the primary sites for FA utilization, and LpL is highly expressed in both tissues . In both tissues, LpL activity is enhanced by FO . These results suggest that increased removal of TG by heart and skeletal muscle contributes to the plasma TG lowering effect . The uptake of FAs released from VLDL via LpL-lipolysis appears to be more efficient in skeletal muscle than in adipose tissue, suggesting less spillover of FAs into the NEFA pool. FO also increases the expression of genes regulating -oxidation in skeletal muscle . Moreover, the FO-induced increase in plasma adiponectin is likely to have a systemic effect on skeletal and cardiac muscle increasing TG hydrolysis, FA uptake and -oxidation . As a result cardiac and skeletal muscles could facilitate the TG-lowering effects of FO by upregulating FA uptake and oxidation.
What To Do Instead: Talk To Your Doctor About A Prescription Statin
Though taking a natural remedy may sound appealing, the better bet is to try an FDA-approved version of, essentially, the same thing. Why? Too much monacolin K can lead to muscle and organ damage, while too little will not help lower your cholesterol. Though a 25% to 30% reduction in cholesterol is possible with high amounts of red yeast rice extract, a prescribed statin is much more effective with a 50% reduction. More importantly, says Dr. Eckel: Statins are safer and more predictable.
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Fish Oil Research: Mixed Results
Other studies have also looked at fish oil and cardiovascular health. The evidence has been mixed, partly because researchers used different types and quantities of fish oils and different placebos.
- The 2007 JELIS trial also evaluated the use of EPA and statins and found a reduction in non-fatal coronary events. Major coronary events were reduced slightly in those with a history of coronary artery disease. No placebo was used.
- The 2019;VITAL study used supplements including vitamin D3 and omega-3 fatty acids. It showed fish oil didnt lower the risk for major cardiac events.
- The 2019 REDUCE-IT trial;evaluated icosapent ethyl , a high-dose pure EPA . The study included people with heart disease or people who were taking a statin medication with raised triglyceride levels. People on the omega-3 supplement had a 25% lower incidence of heart disease and stroke, and a 20% reduction in death from heart disease.
High Cholesterol: Prevention Treatment And Research
Cholesterol is a natural component in everyones blood, and supports normal function of cell membranes, hormone levels and more. However, having too much, is considered hyperlipidemia, hypercholesterolemia or high blood cholesterol a major risk factor for heart attack, heart disease and stroke. About 71 million Americans have high cholesterol.
Heres what happens in your body when you have high cholesterol: The waxy cholesterol builds up in artery walls and contributes to plaque, a hard deposit that narrows and clogs the arteries.
When plaque builds up, it becomes harder for the heart to circulate blood and oxygen, which can cause chest pain or shortness of breath with increased exertion . If a blood clot forms at the site of a disrupted plaque in a narrowed artery, it can block blood flow to the brain or to the heart .
There are actually several different types of cholesterol, one of which is high density lipoprotein cholesterol. High levels of some kinds of cholesterol, including low density lipoprotein cholesterol, can be harmful to your heart and blood vessels.
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Is Virgin Coconut Oil Bad For You
Lately, virgin coconut oil has been heavily promoted. Marketers claim that any bad data on coconut oil are due to hydrogenation, and virgin coconut oil is not hydrogenated.
But only a small percentage, 8%, of coconut oil is unsaturated fat, which means only 8% of coconut oil gets hydrogenated. And the yield is mostly stearic acid, the one common long-chain saturated fatty acid that has minimal impact on LDL cholesterol levels. So completely hydrogenated coconut oil has about the same impact on LDL cholesterol as does virgin oil, points out Dr. Kenney.
Transcription Factors Regulating Fa Metabolism & The Effects Of Fo
Changes in transcription of several nuclear receptors are reported to mediate the TG-reducing effects of FO: sterol regulatory element binding proteins , liver X receptor-alpha , retinoid X receptor alpha , farnesoid X receptor , and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors , and each play prominent roles in controlling lipid metabolism.
The SREBPs are transcription factors that regulate expression of lipid synthesizing enzymes, including fatty acid and TG synthesis, and SREBP-1c, the primary hepatic activator of lipogenesis . It is itself under the control of the Liver LXR which binds to the LXR response element as a heterodimer with RXR and activates expression of SREBP-1c. FOs prevent activation of SREBP-1c expression by inhibiting LXR/RXR binding to the LXR response element located in the promoter regions of SREBP-1c gene , and this is reflected in reduced mRNA levels of SREBP-1c in animals fed FO diets . FOs also act directly on SREBP-1c protein to inhibit its maturation . Since omega-6 FAs have similar effects on SREBP-1c but do not affect plasma TG levels , the reduction in SREBP-1c may be a response to the reduced FA flux rather than the cause.
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Is Fish Oil Bad For Ldl
Does fish oil raise LDL cholesterol?
Andrew Weil, M.D. | August 18, 2008
Fish oil or, more precisely, omega-3 fatty acids offers so many health benefits, including reduction of risk of heart disease, that most experts recommend that everyone eat more coldwater, oily fish, . Fish provide both of the omega-3s: eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid our bodies need. Another omega-3 precursor, alpha-linolenic acid , occurs in nuts , leafy vegetables, flaxseed and some animal fat, especially from grass-fed animals. The body must convert ALA into EPA and DHA, an inefficient process.
Omega-3s are so important to heart health that my longstanding recommendation has been to consume two to three servings of fish per week or to take a fish oil supplement if you dont like fish. The American Heart Association recommends eating at least two fish meals a week. I eat fish often and also take 2-3 grams of supplemental fish oil a day.
Andrew Weil, M.D.